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149

اول و پانزدهم هر ماه مهمان شماييم

 

بنام خدا - نسخه سوم نرم افزار پرسمان ويژه اندروید آماده شد

منو

بايگاني موضوعي
بايگاني شماره اي
گفتگوي زنده
عضويت
پرسش و پاسخ
پيگيري پاسخ
پاسخ سوالات غيرخصوصي
طرح سوال و ارتباط با ما

احكام نماز و روزه دانشجوي مسافر


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Thirty Questions on The Mystery of Creation - Part 2 بازديد: 2175

  نظر بدهيد  /   راي بدهيد  /   ارسال به دوستان  /   طرح سوال


The Six Periods
From what we said up to now, it is concluded that God created the earth and the sky in six succeeding periods; however, these periods have sometimes amounted to millions or billions of years. The modern science has stated nothing opposing this fact. These six periods were probably as follows:
1. One day when the whole universe was in the form of a gaseous mass; it revolved around itself and took apart to form the celestial spheres.
2. Gradually, these spheres turned into molten and shiny masses or cold and habitable plants.
3. The next day, the solar system was formed and the earth dissociated from the sun.
4. The next day, the earth became cold and ready for living.
5. Then the plants and trees appeared on the earth.
6. Finally, animals and the man appeared on the earth.1
What was stated on the six periods is consistent with the Quranic verses, including the following verses:
“And He made in it mountains above its surface, and He blessed therein and made therein its foods, in four periods: alike for the seekers. Then He directed Himself to the heaven and it is a vapor, so He said to it and to the earth: Come both, willingly or unwillingly. They both said: We come willingly. So He ordained them seven heavens in two periods, and revealed in every heaven its affair; and We adorned the lower heaven with brilliant stars and (made it) to guard; that is the decree of the Mighty, the Knowing.”2
To end, it is worth noting that every classification is done based on a certain standard. Dividing creation into six periods in the Quran is not inconsistent with dividing it into less or more periods in the empirical sciences according to some other standards; thus we must not consider the Quranic verses inconsistent with human sciences.

The Evolution Theory
Question no. 18: Was the creation of mankind an all-at-once and independent task, or the result of evolution of other creatures? Does the Quran accept Darwin’s theory of evolution?
The theory of evolution has provoked various approaches among biologists, philosophers of science and religious scholars. Since its onset, this theory has weathered various stages, having been frequently criticized and revised; these stages are as follows:
1) Lamarckism, 2) Neo-Lamarckism,
3) Darwinism, 4) Neo-Darwinism,
5) Mutationism
1. Biology
From biologic point of view, numerous objections to the theory of evolution have been posed. One of these drawbacks is Darwin’s negligence of major and fundamental differences between the man and the animal ancestors alleged by him despite all the efforts he made in gathering evidences in support of his theory. Some of these differences mentioned by Wallace are as follows:
1. A basic difference between the man’s brain and cerebral system and those of the monkey;
2. The evident lingual distinction between the man and the monkey;
3. The talent and ability of artistic creativity in the man;
4. No cerebral difference between the modern man and the primitive tribes alleged by Darwin to be the link between the civilized man and the monkey.
In addition, Phisico, the German naturalist and anthropologist, says, ‘the palpable progresses made by the human natural history makes any kinship between the man and the monkey more and more improbable.’3
2. Philosophy of Science
From the viewpoint of philosophy of science – which is a second-rate knowledge, and studies scientific strategies, methods selected by scientists, their findings, and the factors involved in scientific theorizations – various views have been presented as follows:
1. Logical positivism;
2. Idealism;
3. Naïve realism;
4. Critical realism.
The fourth approach, which is the most recent one, holds that scientific theories are not basically the result of mere observations and are not changeable into sensory data. Rather, they are the result of an interaction between sensory data and the mental products of the scientists. Thus, the scientific theories neither are pure discoveries nor have inventive aspect. Accordingly, they cannot be considered as a precise copy of the external reality and objectivity.4
3. Religion
Among the religious scholars and other scientists seeking to explain the Islamic view on the theory of evolution, there are various approaches as follows:
1. The claim that the Quran have explicitly spoken of gradual evolution, transformism, and continuity of generations;5
2. Rejecting the theory of evolutionary creation;6
3. Justifying the theory of evolution through the Quranic verses if they are proved by the science;7
4. Even if the theory of evolution is proved about other animals, the man is distinctively independent, without any continuity of generation with other animals;8
5. Separating revelation from its interpreters;9
6. Lingual distinction between science and religion.10
Here, we mention ‘Allāma Tabātabā’ī’s view with some brief explanations:
a) The theory of evolution has not been proved empirically, and there is no consensus on it;
b) The Quranic verses have not explicitly spoken of the theories of Fixism or Transformism; however, the verses pertaining to the man’s creation conform with the former view;
c) The Quran and the traditions, so long as they are not inconsistent with other evidences, remain authentic;
d) Considering the abovementioned points, we may not ignore the literal indication of the Quranic verses.11

Some Points
A) The fact that God performs creation through the system of cause and effect is no reason to do it through the evolutionary process and from one-cell to multi-cell creatures. The cause and effect system is a philosophical rule imaginable through different processes.
B) We understand from the Quran’s literal meaning that the modern men are all decedents of Adam and Eve, and there is no generation link between them. Although there may have been some men before Adam on the earth, there were no gap between Adam and the generations after him. So, Adam himself either had or did not have relations to the men before him. If he had, the rest of men link to the pre-Adam ones through Adam; if he did not have, there were no relation between Adam’s children and the men before him. As the Qurans says:
«وَ بَثَّ مِنْهُما رِجالاً كَثِيراً وَ نِساءً»
“…and spread from these two, many men and women…”12

As to how Adam’s generation spread out, there are various views. What is more consistent with the abovementioned verse – adopted by ‘Allāma Tabātabā’ī in his Tafsīr al-Mīzān – is the view holding that Adam's children married one another. This may seem unlikely at the first glance. However, considering changes in God’s precepts according to the conditions of time and place as well as the relativity of religious precepts, we may accept this view.
C) Logically speaking, negation of Darwin’s theory of evolution does not mean that the creation was all at once, just as considering the creation as a gradual process is not restricted to the theory of species’ evolution. On the other hand, the Quranic verses clearly state that the creation was a gradual process; conforming these verses to transformism, however, calls for disregarding the literal meaning of the verses. It is not right to disregard the literal meaning of the verses so long as the transformist theory has not been proved.
 

Early Men
Question no. 19: In Islam’s view and that of other divine religions, human beings are children of Adam and Eve on the earth. Scientific findings, however, show that there were human beings, called Cro-Magnon and Neanderthal, who could not speak and had a bent stature. How do you justify these inconsistencies?
In a saying transmitted from Imam Bāqer (PBUH), he was quoted to tell Jāber bin Yazīd, ‘you think God just created this world and created no human other than you! Indeed, He created thousands of thousands of worlds and thousands and thousands of men, and you are in the last group.’13
Based on these traditions, some of the Islamic thinkers hold that Adam (PBUH) was not the first man living on the earth; rather, there were some anthropoids or human beings whose generations have been vanished due to unknown reasons.14
As for the Adam’s creation, there have been various views, such as:
1. There had been no creature like Adam before him, and he was created independently;
2. There had been a human being before Adam, but not completely evolved; his generation became extinct anyway, and Adam was created with no link with him;
3. There had been some human beings before Adam but not completely evolved; they did not become extinct. Rather, they achieved the level of humanity in their path of evolution, and Adam was the first man and the first prophet from their generation, not being independently created.15
The literal meaning of the Quranic verses show that Adam and his wife, Eve, were the ancestors of human beings, who then are created through the union of spermatozoid and ovum in their mothers’ wombs. But how was Adam himself created? The Quranic verses show that Adam was created without any father and mother; rather, he was created from earthly elements with a divine soul.
If scientific findings show that there were creatures like men in much earlier periods, this would not negate the fact that the existing generations of man are generated from Adam and Eve. Those two, however, were not generated from previous anthropoids or human beings. Besides, today’s scientific findings have not proved that the existing man was generated from Cro-Magnon or Neanderthal.
 

Embryology
Question no. 20: What is the Quran’s view on the stages of the man’s embryonic creation?
Embryology divides the phases of the man’s formation in the womb as follows:
1. The phase of embryonic mass: this phase begins from the moment of conception and fertilization of the male and female embryonic cells and continues up to the end of the second week.
2. The embryonic period: this phase begins from the third week and continues up to the eighth week. During this period, all of the main systems of the body are formed.
3. The fetal period: this is the period beginning from the third month and lasting up to the birth. In this period, the embryo is called fetus.
This division is based on some events occurring in the evolutionary phases of the embryo. What distinguishes one phase from the other is a group of changes classified in a particular way. This classification does not necessarily follow a single format; in other words, it may be variously done according to other criteria. What is important here is a proper report of the embryo’s growth.

Periods of the Embryo’s Formation according to the Quran
Some researchers, such as Muhammad Ali al-Bārr, have enumerated 7 phases for origination and evolution of the embryo in the Quran’s view. These phases are as follows: 1. Nutfa, 2. ‘Alaqa, 3. Muzgha (Mukhallaqa and Ghayr Mukhallaqa), 4. ‘Izām, 5. Lahm, 6. Taswiya, Taswīr, Ta’dīl, 7. Nafkh Rūh.
The major verses used in this regard are as follows:
1. «إِنّا خَلَقْنَا الاْءِنْسانَ مِنْ نُطْفَةٍ أَمْشاجٍ نَبْتَلِيهِ فَجَعَلْناهُ سَمِيعاً بَصِيراً»
“Surely We have created man from a small life-germ uniting (itself): We mean to try him, so We have made him hearing, seeing.”16
2. «ثُمَّ جَعَلَ نَسْلَهُ مِنْ سُلالَةٍ مِنْ ماءٍ مَهِينٍ. ثُمَّ سَوّاهُ وَ نَفَخَ فِيهِ مِنْ رُوحِهِ...»
“Then He made his progeny of an extract, of water held in light estimation. Then He made him complete and breathed into him of His spirit…”17
3. «خَلَقَ الاْءِنْسانَ مِنْ عَلَقٍ»
“He created man from a clot.”18
4. «هُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ مِنْ تُرابٍ ثُمَّ مِنْ نُطْفَةٍ ثُمَّ مِنْ عَلَقَةٍ ثُمَّ يُخْرِجُكُمْ طِفْلاً...»
“He it is Who created you from dust, then from a sperm-drop, then from a clot, then He brings you forth as a child…”19
5. «أَيَحْسَبُ الاْءِنْسانُ أَنْ يُتْرَكَ سُدىً. أَلَمْ يَكُ نُطْفَةً مِنْ مَنِيٍّ يُمْنى ثُمَّ كانَ عَلَقَةً فَخَلَقَ فَسَوّى»
“Does man think that he is to be left to wander without an aim? Was he not a small seed in the seminal elements? Then he was a clot of blood, so He created (him) then made (him) perfect.”20
6. «يا أَيُّهَا النّاسُ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ فِي رَيْبٍ مِنَ الْبَعْثِ فَإِنّا خَلَقْناكُمْ مِنْ تُرابٍ ثُمَّ مِنْ نُطْفَةٍ ثُمَّ مِنْ عَلَقَةٍ ثُمَّ مِنْ مُضْغَةٍ مُخَلَّقَةٍ وَ غَيْرِ مُخَلَّقَةٍ...»
“O people! if you are in doubt about the raising, then surely We created you from dust, then from a small seed, then from a clot, then from a lump of flesh, complete in make and incomplete…”21
7. «وَ لَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا الاْءِنْسانَ مِنْ سُلالَةٍ مِنْ طِينٍ. ثُمَّ جَعَلْناهُ نُطْفَةً فِي قَرارٍ مَكِينٍ. ثُمَّ خَلَقْنَا النُّطْفَةَ عَلَقَةً فَخَلَقْنَا الْعَلَقَةَ مُضْغَةً فَخَلَقْنَا الْمُضْغَةَ عِظاماً فَكَسَوْنَا الْعِظامَ لَحْماً ثُمَّ أَنْشَأْناهُ خَلْقاً آخَرَ فَتَبارَكَ اللّهُ أَحْسَنُ الْخالِقِينَ...»
“Then We made the seed a clot, then We made the clot a lump of flesh, then We made (in) the lump of flesh bones, then We clothed the bones with flesh, then We caused it to grow into another creation, so blessed be Allah, the best of the creators.”22
Now, due to the special importance of the issue, we investigate the first three phases and the extent to which they conform to the scientific findings.
1. Nutfa
Nutfa in Arabic means ‘little water’, hence its use in calling the semen.23It is also used for sperm and ovule or ovum, as it is used in the Quranic verse:
«...أَ لَمْ يَكُ نُطْفَةً مِنْ مَنِيٍّ يُمْنى»
“…Was he not a small seed in the seminal elements?...”24
In the Persian translation of the Quran, the original Arabic word has been used; in English translation, however, the following equivalents have been used: 'Life Germ' (Arbery), 'Dropped Sperm' (Shakir), 'Drop of Seed' (H. Palmer), 'Living Sperm Drop' (Pickthall).
The differences in translations are somewhat due to differences in usage of the words and various semantic aspects of the word itself.
2. Nutfatun Amshāj
Amshāj is the plural form of the word mashīj and mashj, meaning ‘mixed’ and ‘composite’.25 Here, there are various possibilities as to what elements are meant in the composition of nutfa in the abovementioned verse. The most important one are as follows:
A) Integration and fecundation of the sperm and ovule. This is the most common view among the commentators. Some commentators such as Tabarī, Ibn Kathīr, Marāghī, and Tabarsī have accepted this view. Some others, such as Mujāhed, have adduced the verse “surely We have created you of a male and a female”26 in supporting this view. In Ahmad bin Hanbal’s Musnad, the Prophet has been quoted as saying, ‘from the woman’s nutfa and the man’s nutfa’.27
B) Composition of nutfa from various elements. Regarding this fact, Maurice Bucaille says, ‘the seminal liquid is composed of various matters secreted from the following glands:
1. Testicles. The liquid secreted from the male gonad contains spermatozoid, composed of long mastigophoran cells floated in a serum-like liquid.
2. Seminal sacs. These organs are tanks for spermatozoids; they are located near the prostate and secrete a liquid void of any fertilizing element.
3. Prostate. It secretes a liquid giving the semen a creamy form and a special odor.
4. The glands attached to the urethra, including the Cooper or Mary gland secreting a fluid matter and the Littre gland secreting a mucous matter.’28
Bucaille then asks, ‘…How can we not be affected by the conformity between the Quranic text and the scientific findings on these phenomena in our age?’29
As regards the meaning of ‘admixture of nutfa’ in the Quran, the verse “surely We have created you of a male and a female”30 supports his idea. This, however, does not negate the second probability. Thus, some of the commentators such as the writer of al-Mīzān have not preferred one view over the others.31 Nonetheless, in view of the plural form of the word amshāj, it seems that the Quran refers to various types of admixture; accordingly, we may consider both views as conforming to this verse. Anyway, two following points are certain:
1. The idea of 'admixture of nutfa' mentioned in the Quran is an original one (the best evidence for this is the history of embryology that shows this idea has not been referred to by the scientists up to the recent centuries).
2. This idea conforms to the latest scientific findings in embryology.
3. ‘Alq and ‘Alaqa
The second phase of the embryo’s growth in the Quran’s view is ‘alaqa¸ This word has been mentioned in the Quran five times.32 In one case, the word ‘alaq is used instead. There are, however, various approaches on whether the word ‘alaq is the same as ‘alaqa or not. Accordingly, we will discuss them separately.
A. ‘Alaq
The word ‘alaq means 'overhang', 'attach', 'sticky thing', and 'blood'; and the plural form ‘alaqa means 'bloodsucker leech'33 and 'hanging place'.34
In some of the Persian translations of the Quran, there appear the following equivalents: “a blood clot’ (Makārem Shīrāzī); “Āwīzak which is the same as spermatozoid” (Fūlādwand); “a clotted blood” (Mu’izzī); “a clot of the blood” (Āyatī); and “a leech-like sperm” (Behbūdī).
In the English translations, the following equivalents have been used: 'clot' (Shakir); 'clot of congealed blood' (Yusuf Ali); 'blood clot' (Arbery); 'germ cell' (H, Palmer).
No matter whether these equivalents are right or wrong, it is interesting to note that many translators regard ‘alaq the same as ‘alaqa, the phase after the nutfa; in Behbūdī’s Persian translation and Palmer’s English translation, however, the equivalents used are closer to the first phase, i.e. nutfa.
Earlier commentators of the Quran have not paid much attention to the issue of semantic sameness or difference of these two words; just in the recent decades, this issue has been considered and investigated. In Tasīr al-Qur’ān, we read:
“‘alaq – but not ‘alaqa, for it is the second state of the embryo, after the ‘alaq – is the mass noun for the little and sticky worms, and it is the plural form. Thus, ‘alaq is the same as semen, which – due to its sticky nature – “hangs over anything such as one’s clothes, body or the septum of the womb. And the whole – containing millions of sticky sperms, some attaching to others, and all attaching to the septum of the womb – is ‘alaq…”35
To prove the distinction between ‘alaq and ‘alaqa, one may adduce the fact that in none of the cases where different phases of embryo are mentioned, the Quran uses the word ‘alaq; rather, it uses the word ‘alaqa in such cases.36 In cases where the Quran refers to the continuation of human generation, it restricts itself to mentioning just one phase, recalling just the very first phase, i.e. the nutfa phase, as the origin of the embryo, stating one of its features each time. Some examples are as follows:
«أَلَمْ نَخْلُقْكُمْ مِنْ ماءٍ مَهِينٍ»
“Did We not create you from contemptible water?”37
«ثُمَّ جَعَلَ نَسْلَهُ مِنْ سُلالَةٍ مِنْ ماءٍ مَهِينٍ»
“Then He made his progeny of an extract of water held in light estimation.”38
«خُلِقَ مِنْ ماءٍ دافِقٍ...»
“He is created of water pouring forth.”39
In these verses, the words mahīn, sulāla, dāfeq, and amshāj each refers to one of the features of the nutfa. Now it is probable that the word ‘alaq refers to the very beginning phase of the embryo’s conception, with its wormlike and leech-like form; this idea, however, is not so strong to be fully accepted by rejecting all other meanings.
B. ‘Alaqa
The word ‘alaqa is used in several senses as follows: ‘a red aquatic leech’40, ‘a bloodsucker aquatic parasite’, ‘a blood clot’41, and ‘a red aquatic parasite sticking to the body and sucking the blood’.42
In the Persian and English translation of the Quran, the words ‘alaq and ‘alaqa are translated in the same way; in the Behbūdī’s Persian translation of the Quran, however, it has been translated as: ‘in the form of a worm sticking to the septum of the womb’.43 The Quran’s commentators have traditionally translated the word ‘alaqa as a ‘clotted blood’. In some of the new translations of the Quran, such as Tantāwī,44 al-Mīzān,45 Nemūna,46 etc., it is appeared in this sense. Some commentators have not specified it, just referring to it as the next phase after nutfa.47

The Relationship with Science
Now the problem arisen here is that the modern embryology has studied with precise tools all the phases of the embryo’s origination and development; it has not, however, indicated any phase as ‘clotted blood’. Some, thus, have asserted that ‘…the man has never passed the phase of the clotted blood’.48
Therefore, considering the scientific definiteness of the abovementioned matter and the uniqueness of the Creator of the universe, who has revealed the Quran and has absolute command of all elements of the existence (“Does He not know, Who created? And He is the Knower of the subtleties, the Aware.”)49, as well as the undoubted truth of the Quran and the fact that the words ‘alaq and ‘alaqa have different meanings, we clearly find that interpreting or translating it as ‘clotted blood’ is not right. Instead, there are two meanings consistent with the new scientific findings: ‘leech’ and ‘the hanging sticky thing’. Some have preferred the second meaning, regarding the word ‘leech’ – with its sperm-like form – as a suitable equivalent for naming the first phase.
Maurice Bucaille says, ‘…nestling of the zygote in the womb is done by some flagellums which are the tails of the zygote; these grow like roots of a plant in the soil to take the necessary nutrients from the womb. They hang the zygote to the womb. Their identification is a new finding.’ Referring to the verse 2 of the chapter 96 (‘Alaq: ‘He created man from a clot.’), he goes on saying, ‘the translation of ‘what is hanging’ is for the word ‘alaq…; and this shows the reality proved today. This notion is recalled in four other verses50 mentioning the successive evolutions of the semen drop.’51
Al-Bārr also says, ‘…essentially, ‘alaqa is an equivalent for anything hanging or sticking….;’alaqa in the womb does the same thing: sticking to the womb septum and nestling there…’52 Based on this view, the word ‘alaqa has a descriptive meaning, representing the nestling phase of the fertilized nutfa. Dr. Ali al-Bārr regards hanging and attaching the most important and prominent features of this phase up to the end of embryonic period, holding that the word ‘alaq is the most precise descriptive word for it.53
Now, a question is posed as follows: ‘why have the commentators and translators of the Quran – early ones in particular – interpreted ‘alaqa as ‘clotted blood’, though this is rejected scientifically? Al-Bārr answers as follows:
‘Alaqa has been surrounded by clotted blood. When we note that the volume of ‘alaqa in a hanging state does not exceed 41 mm, we find out why earlier commentators would emphasize that ‘alaqa is clotted blood…yes, ‘alaqa has not been discernable with naked eyes, because it has been surrounded by blood. Interpreting ‘alaqa as ‘clotted blood’ was thus due to observing it without special devices…’54
C. Muzgha
Muzgha is derived from mazgh (literally ‘chewing’), meaning 'a piece of meat chewed in one morsel'55 or 'a chewed morsel of meat' or the like.56
In the Persian translations of the Quran, the word muzgha has been translated as ‘something like a chewed piece of meat’ (Makārem Shīrāzī), ‘muzgha’ (Fūlādwand), ‘chewed meat’ (Mu’izzī), ‘a piece of meat’ (Ilāhī Qumshe’ī), ‘as a chewed piece of meat’ (Behbūdī), and ‘a piece of meat’ (Āyatī).
In English translations, we see the following equivalents: ‘a tissue’ (Arbery), ‘a lump of flesh’ (Shakir), ‘a fetus lump’ (Yusuf Ali), ‘an embryonic lump’ (H. Palmer), ‘a little lump’ (Pickthall), and ‘shapeless lump of flesh’.
In commentaries, we see: ‘«ثُمَّ مِنْ مُضْغَةٍ» (and then from muzgha) and that is a small piece of meat chewed, and a transformed form of ‘alaqa’57; ‘فَخَلَقْنَا الْعَلَقَةَ مُضْغَةً» (and then We turned the ‘alaqa into muzgha)58. Some others have interpreted muzgha as ‘thick blood’: ‘and from ‘alaqa to muzgha; and it is a lump of thick blood without any special name and form’59and ‘from ‘alaqa to muzgha; when the hanging nutfa grows up and turns into a lump of mixed thick blood’.60 Translating muzgha into ‘thick blood’ seems incorrect both scientifically and literally. However, what has been used in Makārem and Behbūdī’s translations is consistent with scientific findings and early observations without advanced scientific instruments.
In scientific investigations, this phase is usually regarded as coinciding with evolutions starting from the third week, i.e. the embryonic period and origination of the somites. Al-Bārr says:
‘The origination of somites is accompanied by origination of pharyngeal arches created through gaps in the ectoderm and growth of mesoderm. As a result, five pairs of pharyngeal arches are created in the upper part of the embryo (just under the head). Therefore, the word muzgha (a chewed piece of meat thrown away) is the most precise description for this phase. This is because the pharyngeal arches and the somites give the embryo the form of muzgha.’61
Seemingly, the Quran has confined itself to mentioning the external form of the embryo – in the form of a chewed morsel – in this stage. However, if the word muzgha means ‘the chewed meat’, it would also refer to the genus of the embryo, i.e. any fleshy material. Nevertheless, it should be noted that here by ‘meat’ we mean something other than the flesh covering the bones, called lahm by the Quran. Considering what we have said up to now, we may conclude from the embryological teachings of the Quran that:
1. The Quran, for the first time, reveals the fact that the man’s nutfa is of a mixed nature. This was not known to the embryologists up to the nineteenth century; the commentators of the Quran, however, knew some parts of this fact (composition of nutfa from the man’s sperm and the woman’s ovule), mentioning this in their exegeses.
2. The Quran, for the first time, speaks of the hanging nature of the ovule and its nestling in the womb. This was unknown to the commentators until the studies conducted by using microscope and the revolution in the embryology revealed the truth in the Quranic passages.
3. Regarding the third phase, the Quran’s expressions mainly refer to the form of the embryo, while it can also be considered as referring to the genus of the embryo.
 

Creation of the Spirit
Question no. 21: What do we mean by ‘spirit’? Can we consider it separated from the body, regarding each as separately created? Then, how can we justify the living nature of the cell?
To answer the above question, the following points are noteworthy:
1. Philosophically speaking, ‘soul’ is classified into three types: vegetative, animal, and humane. The human beings enjoy all three. The animals enjoy the first two, and the plants enjoy just the first type. In other words, the soul in a higher rank enjoys the perfections of the lower rank or ranks as well. The main features of the vegetative soul are as follows: growth, nourishment, and procreation.
The features of the animal soul, in addition to the abovementioned features, are sensory perception and motion. Among other features of the human soul are free will and intellection.
From what has already been stated, it is clarified that any soul possesses some certain faculties, leading to certain actions. So, the mere living nature does not mean enjoying human soul or spirit. That is, there are so many living creatures without any human or even animal soul. The embryo is alive from the early phases of conception. However, its life is initially vegetative, then animal, and finally human. Based on some traditions, this last phase begins form the fourth or fifth month.
In other words, after the completion of the body parts (at the end of the fourth and during the fifth month) the external form of the embryo is completed or mature, and the mother feels the motions of the embryo. This phase can be considered as the starting point for the origination of the spirit or the first manifestations of the human life.
2. In the Quranic verses and among the Muslim philosophers and theologians, the word ‘Rūh’ has been used to mean various things including ‘the human soul’, such as in the following glorified verse:
«فَإِذا سَوَّيْتُهُ وَ نَفَخْتُ فِيهِ مِنْ رُوحِي»
“So when I have made him complete and breathed into him of My spirit…”62
The researchers say, ‘when God says ‘I breathed into him of My spirit’ is to honor the man’s soul, denoting its glory. So, it does not really mean that something was cut off from God to attach to the man. Rather, the spirit is a created thing, just as the body and all other creatures.
3. There are a variety of views on whether the spirit and the body enjoy different creations. In Mullā Sadrā’s view, the spirit is ‘physically originated’ and ‘spiritually eternal’; that is, the matter, in its evolutionary course and substantial movement, reaches the point of sensual and spiritual incorporeity, and the body and spirit have no separate creation.63
 

Invalidity of Metempsychosis
Question no. 22: Has our spirit been in other bodies prior to coming into our body? What is the religious and rational status of metempsychosis?
Metempsychosis is of two kinds:
1. Earthly metempsychosis (Tanāsukh-e Mulkī), meaning that the man’s soul leaves his body to enter another corporeal body.
2. Celestial metempsychosis (Tanāsukh-e Malakūtī), meaning that the soul – with its beliefs, thoughts, intentions, speeches and actions – makes an ideal body appropriate for the purgatory, and a resurrectional body appropriate for the realm of resurrection, then embodying in that form. In other words, the man with his beliefs and actions in this world makes a body in purgatory and a body in resurrection for himself, to which his soul would belong and to which it would combine after it is released from the corporeal body.
Various types of earthly metempsychosis have been mentioned: Raskh (the spirit’s return to inanimate things), Faskh (the spirit’s return to vegetations), Maskh (the spirit’s return to animals), and Naskh (the spirit’s return to the man’s body). Besides, metempsychosis has been divided into ‘descending’ and ‘ascending’ types. Descending metempsychosis is the spirit’s return into a body in a lower rank, such as a spirit's return into an animal’s body; the ascending type is the vice versa.
From philosophical point of view, ‘celestial metempsychosis’ is rationally acceptable, but the earthly type is invalid. To invalidate each type of the earthly metempsychosis, numerous arguments have been presented. Here, we just mention one of the general philosophical arguments. The argument rests upon several principles as follows:
a) Based on the transcendental philosophy, the soul’s link with the body is of an innate nature. The man’s soul is a reality essentially belonging to the body. Thus, the man’s spirit would not be without a body in any sphere. That is, in any origination and any world, it would have a proper body.
b) The combination of the soul and the body is a union, not an attachment; these two have one single existence, leading to the formation of a being called human. Accordingly, the man’s soul cannot survive without his body, as his body cannot live without his soul.
c) In the uniting composition, the two beings composed must enjoy the same rank; that is, if one of them is in pure potentiality and the other in pure actuality, they cannot be united. This is because in the process of union, they turn into one single existence; and it is impossible to unite something in a weaker and lower rank of existence (potentiality) with something in a stronger and higher rank (actuality). The lower rank cannot be simultaneously in a higher rank and vice versa. Hence it is impossible to combine a potential being with an actual one.
d) The whole material universe is in motion. Any being is constantly moving in its proper path based on certain rules; this movement is towards perfection and is proper to the being itself. For instance, a seed of wheat placed under the ground and splitting in favorable conditions to gradually grow would certainly move toward the last stage of becoming a perfect ripe spike. The seed of a fruit hidden under the ground breaks its shell and burgeons. From the first stages, it is moving towards the goal of achieving perfection and becoming a tree full of fruits. Anyway, the system of creation would never leave its task (i.e. moving towards perfection); and guides all the creatures towards their proper destinations. The soul and the body are no exception; they also are constantly moving towards their proper perfection, just as all other creatures.
e) In any movement, if an existent moves from potentiality towards actuality, it would be impossible to return to potentiality. This is because the movement is always from deficiency to perfection, and from lacking to possession. Thus, it is impossible for an actualized being to return to potentiality. For example, the body of an animal, once grown up, would not return to the state of being a sperm. Otherwise, this would be contrary to the law of motion.
Considering the five abovementioned principles, it is impossible for a departed spirit to return to another material body. If the departed soul or spirit wants to return to a body in embryonic phase – since the spirit in the former body has covered the path in proportion to the material world, having passed some states of lacking and deficiency, and achieving some actualizations – it must unite with a material body that is still in its early stages of movement, being imperfect compared to the perfect spirit; and this is impossible. Since the body and the spirit have a uniting combination and a single existence, it is impossible to unite an actualized being with a potential being – one imperfect and the other perfect. Thus, the perfected spirit cannot be united with an imperfect body.
If one says the spirit, having left the first body, descends to unite with another body, we would say, ‘according to the fifth principle, it is impossible for the actualized being to return to potentiality; and this is contrary to the truth of movement.’
The spirit, having left the material body, would unite with the ideal body and continue its movement in purgatory. The material body, once died, would cover a special path in this world and undergoes some necessary changes to acquire the capacity for being reunited with the spirit in the hereafter.64
The Quranic verses and transmitted traditions also invalidate the earthly metempsychosis. Their general theme shows the continuity of the spirit’s movement in the worlds after death, and not its return to the material world. However, the spirit’s attachment to the afterlife body or its appearance in other worlds in various states is confirmed by the Quranic verses and transmitted traditions, a topic to be discussed in eschatology.65
A group of the Quranic verses has adduced evidences for maskh; for instance, according to the verses 60 of Mā’ida (5) and 66 of A’rāf (7), a group of human beings subject to God’s wrath were transformed into monkeys and pigs. In short, maskh (a sinful man’s turning into an animal) is completely different from the invalid metempsychosis. Metempsychosis is based on two principles:
1. In metempsychosis, two bodies are involved. One is the body from which the spirit has been separated and the other is the new body to which the spirit is attached, while in maskh the same body turns into an animal body.
2. In metempsychosis, the soul returns from its state of perfections and actuality to imperfection and potentiality in embryonic life, while in maskh the human body does not turn into the animal sperm.
 

The World of Dharr (i.e. pre-existence)
Question no. 23: Have we humans previously been in the world of dharr? What and how is the world of dharr?
The Glorified God says in the Holy Quran:
«...وَ إِذْ أَخَذَ رَبُّكَ مِنْ بَنِي آدَمَ مِنْ ظُهُورِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّتَهُمْ وَ أَشْهَدَهُمْ عَلى أَنْفُسِهِمْ أَ لَسْتُ بِرَبِّكُمْ قالُوا بَلى شَهِدْنا أَنْ تَقُولُوا يَوْمَ الْقِيامَةِ إِنّا كُنّا عَنْ هذا غافِلِينَ...»
And when your Lord brought forth from the children of Adam, from their backs, their “descendants, and made them bear witness against their own souls: Am I not your Lord? They said: Yes! We bear witness. Lest you should say on the day of resurrection: Surely we were heedless of this.”66
There are many sayings transmitted from the holy Prophet in explanation of the above verse. Among them is a saying from Imam Bāqer (PBUH) addressing one of his companions called Zurāra as follows: ‘…from Adam’s loins, God extracted his progeny up to the resurrection day, and they came out by the score. Then God introduced and manifested Himself to them; if He did not do that, no one would know his Lord…’67
Now a question is posed as follows: ‘how was this manifestation and what does the world of dharr, covenant, or alast mean?’
There have emerged various views among religious thinkers in this regard; the most important ones are as follows:
1. Covenant in a world composed of body and spirit; the spirits of the human beings, before attaching to their bodies, were attached to very tiny particles. Those particles became alive and aware when spirits attached to them. Then, God put them under covenant as to His Lordship; having answered their Lord, the human beings returned to Adams’ loins.
2. The view of analogy and innate things; some hold that the verse uses analogy to clarify that God, by granting innumerable bounties as well as intellect to man, expects him to prostrate before his God and follow Him. The man, in his own conscience, answers positively to this unstated expectation and accepts it.
3. Covenant in the language of reason and revelation; this verse aims at stating an external reality, and God’s covenant has been made clear to human beings through reason, revelation and so many prophets. That is, He has put them under covenant to accept religious teachings by giving them rational perception and sending them revelations.
4. Covenant in the celestial sphere; ‘Allāma Tabātabā’ī holds that creatures have two kinds of existence: a collective existence before God (in the celestial sphere), and discursive existences, which is gradually revealed with a lapse of time. Thus, the worldly life of the men is preceded by another human world wherein all creatures observe God through an inner perception, acknowledging His uniqueness. The question and answer in the world of pre-existence refers to this.68
‘Allāma also holds that the verse refers to the celestial dimension of human beings; that is the place for covenant is the celestial realm. Considering the external meaning of the verse that says ‘when your Lord brought …’, the following points are noted:
a) Before this world, there had been a world wherein the covenant was made.
b) The scene of the covenant precedes the material world.
c) Since these two realms are not separated, God commands the man living in the material world to remember those celestial aspects and to preserve them.
5. The innate covenant; some have regarded this verse as an account of the human’s nature. That is, the human beings are monotheist in their inner nature. This idea is very similar to the theory of analogy, as if the verse is an analogical statement of the man’s nature.
Iqbāl Lāhūrī mentions the same theme in a couplet as follows: ‘I sat beside my nature for thousands of years’; that is, I have been intimate with my nature since the covenant in the alast day; then ‘I detached from myself and joined it’, I forgot myself and turned to God.
However, when I came to the material world, I preferred idolatry to monotheism; then I turned to my nature again and broke that idol…until the truth hidden in the man’s nature represents itself and the man turns to it completely:
«فِطْرَتَ اللّهِ الَّتِي فَطَرَ النّاسَ عَلَيْها»
“…the nature made by Allah in which He has made men…”69
Thus, acknowledging the truth of monotheism – stated in the verse by the word ‘yes’ –is not just a verbal acknowledgement; rather, it is an innate and inherent reality present in the conscience of any man, even those who orally deny God’s Lordship.
Evaluation
Each of the abovementioned ideas has been variously evaluated.70 Among the ideas mentioned up to now, the theory of innate covenant and that presented by ‘Allama Tabātabā’ī are more reasonable and more acceptable. However, we may not consider any of them as what is meant by the above verse. Anyway, both of these views are separately acceptable and supported by religion and philosophy. In this regard, Martyr Beheshtī writes, ‘what can be said on this verse is that it synoptically mentions one phase in humans’ existence, a phase where they acknowledged God’s Lordship. This acknowledgement was not strong to keep all human being in the right path forever. However, it was effective enough to make them intellectually and consciously ready to seek God, such that they may not excuse for being completely unaware in the Day of Judgment. This readiness even lets them leave the superstitious beliefs of their forefathers to come to the right path, being unable to offer excuses for their wrong deeds. As for the features of this phase, however, no further explanation is provided by the Quran.’71
 

Posterior Creation
Question no. 24: will God create other creatures after the man’s creation?
There is no decisive evidence for that, but generally speaking, as far as religious texts and mystical and philosophical views are concerned, God is ever-emanating. Sayings from Infallible Imams also denote that after this universe there will be created another universe and other human beings, achieving their own perfection through God’s emanation and guidance. Nevertheless, their features and system of living may be different from ours.
We may analyze this statement using a philosophical-mystical approach: considering the Almighty God’s infinity, He will grant a proper existence to any possible being and will not deprive it from His emanation. Accordingly, His emanation is constantly present. However, the question is who and what will have the capacity to receive the divine emanation and blessing. We just know that the existing system of creation is constantly in the process of being created; this is because the universe is an effect of a cause – i.e. the divine action – and whenever the Creator stops creating, there would be no action and no universe. Therefore, the universe is being created nonstop, and God is constantly busy creating; as the following verse asserts:
«كل يوم هو فى شأن»
“Every day He exercises (universal) power.”72
 

Differences
The Mystery of Differences

Question no. 25: If God is just, why are there so many differences and discriminations? Why does He create someone male and the other female, someone blind or deaf and the other sound and safe? Why did He not create all in one form and shape?
To answer these questions, some basic points are referred to:
1. The concept of justice: the literal meaning of justice is equality and equalizing; and in common usage, it means observing people’s rights against oppression (abuses by others). In defining ‘justice’, it is said, ‘giving all rightful their proper rights’
Other meanings have also been mentioned for ‘justice’, but the meaning attributed to God refers to the general emanation and widespread munificence towards all creatures capable of being and achieving a certain degree of perfection, without any parsimony. In other words, divine justice is another expression of His wisdom and grace.
2. What exists in the system of creation is difference, not discrimination; and what is reprehensible is discrimination, not any kind of difference and plurality.
Justice does not necessarily mean making all human beings or all things equal. A just teacher, for instance, is not someone who gives equal marks to all students – whether assiduous or indolent. Rather, he must admire each student or rebuke him/ her according to their deserts.
Thus, God’s justice does not necessitate all creatures to be created equally. His wisdom necessitates creation of the universe in a way that various creatures are guided to their final goal according to their own capacity and desert. One must not consider the elements of universe as separated; rather, they must be evaluated as a systematic collection in which any member is a part of a whole. In a collection, any component enjoys a particular position, according to which it acquires a certain quality.
The universe is like the eye, mole, and eyebrow in a face
Where everything is good when it is in its own place

In principle, if there were no difference, there would be no plurality and variety; and if there were no plurality and variety, there would be no collection or system. If all human beings were male or all creatures were of the same species or similar, there would be no universe with such an order and beauty.
3. Differences among creatures are a necessary condition for the system of cause and effect. That is, any cause has a certain effect, and any effect has a certain cause. Indeed, any being has a specified position in the system of cause and effect. The lack of any specified system among creatures would lead to a situation in which anything can be the origin for anything else; for example, the effect of a matchstick could be equal to the effect of the sun. Thus, the relationship of any cause with its effect, and that of any effect with its causes, originates from the essence of cause and effect.
In other words, the status of any creature is, in its own position, like the hierarchy of numbers where the negation of any number’s position equals to the negation of its existence. For example, if we want the number ‘five’ to denote a number more than ‘six’, it would no longer be number ‘five’. Similarly, the emergence of an effect higher than the perfections of its final cause is equal to the absence of that effect and even of that cause.
4. In the material world, based on its specific causes, there are oppositions in nature; the picture of matter without this feature is unimaginable. Fire, wherever it is, has its specific feature of burning, whether it is in a mosque or in a house or a shop. Thus, the material world cannot be expected to do anything out of the causality system. For example, alcohol cannot affect just the alcoholic person; rather, it affects his descendants as well. Likewise, the tuberculosis bacteria will affect any person in close contact with the afflicted one. We cannot expect the contrary in the nature. Removing such conflicts from the material world would mean removing the matter altogether and creating just immaterial creatures.
5. Considering the causality system and the conflicts in the material world, differences and deficiencies or weaknesses are all necessary elements, and any change in them necessitates a change in the hierarchy of the universe and alteration of the whole system. Nevertheless, the existing natural differences are of two types:
a) Differences independent of human knowledge and will (these are unchangeable);
b) Differences and deficiencies related to human knowledge and will.
Many unwelcome events occurring in one’s life – especially one’s children and family members – are due to human’s being unaware of laws of nature and/or divine commands. According to researches conducted, a large number of physical and mental disabilities of children are due to their parents’ unawareness or negligence. Those persons who are aware of and committed to principles of healthy life have healthier children. These kinds of deficiencies are removable by an increase in one’s awareness and his proper functioning.
6. Along with some of the deficiencies and pains, the widespread divine mercy necessitates that He compensate the afflicted innocent persons by rewarding them in the hereafter73 or alleviating their responsibilities and duties74 and making others assist them.
Besides, there are some other mysteries for existing differences among creatures, which we do not mention here to observe brevity.

Difference in Capacities
Question no. 26: It is usually said that the differences among creatures are inherent in them or results from their inherent capacities; if God has granted the capacities, why did He not grant them all equally?
In reality, the capacities of all creatures and human beings are not containers quite filled for some and half-filled for others. Rather, any creature’s capacity is shaped in proportion to its own condition. Any container is filled in proportion to its own capacity. The more the capacities are actualized, the bigger would be the containers. For example, the higher the man’s knowledge and scientific degrees rise, the broader his spiritual capacities would become.
Besides, any of the inanimate things, plants and animals has a certain sphere for emerging their capacities. A wheat seed, for example, can turn into a spike of seventy seeds in a few months, if the necessary conditions are provided. The less these effective factors are available, the less the number of the seeds would be, and vice versa. The same is true for all other animals and plants.
Regarding the differences of capacities and capabilities among creatures, the following points must be noted:
1. Not just one particular condition is there for any creature or just one certain type of capability it has; rather, there may be a change in the conditions and accordingly in the capabilities. The fossils, for instance, turn into coal and then into veins of diamond in thousands of years. By crossing two types of fruits or flowers, we may have a new type with a new color and composition. However, all these are systematic and methodical.
2. Changes are sometimes created by external factors, such as most of changes created in inanimate things and plants by human activities or natural phenomena. In addition to external factors, there are sometimes personal and internal factors that create changes in capabilities; this is mostly true for human beings. Here, an individual's internal factors are added to genetic and environmental factors to affect his conditions, and individual will and motivations create many differences in capabilities among human beings.
Nevertheless, there are some immutable facts as well. Rational principles such as 'impossibility of association of two opposites', or mathematic equations are immutable facts.
God has naturally made such a system dominate the universe; accordingly, He is said to have granted capabilities. This divine will, however, is not unreasonable and unsystematic; rather, it is proportionate to the creatures' conditions. For example, if a wheat seed is tramped on, it would lose the capacity to turn into a spike. If it is put underground under good conditions with enough water and light, it would germinate and grow to turn into a spike. A wheat seed would grow into a wheat spike, and an apple seed would grow into an apple tree. In the same way, a man's sperm bears a baby under favorable conditions, just as an animal's sperm in natural conditions bears a whelp.
Among the human beings, if the sperm contains superior gens, the baby born would enjoy more capacity and higher level of intelligence. However, if the sperm belongs to an addicted father, the baby born may have physical and mental disorders. Indeed, in different conditions, children with various capabilities may be born even from the same father. Naturally, the products vary in different conditions; otherwise, it would be unjust and unsystematic if the same product were produced in various conditions.
Therefore, the capacities of any creature is revealed in view of the whole set of conditions. By saying God has granted the capabilities of the creatures, we mean He has determined the whole system of the universe to be such, and such is His general will in this system. This very order and discipline has caused the differences in capabilities to be calculable and predictable, and has enabled the scientists to discover scientific rules such as those in chemistry, physics, etc. This has also enabled physicians to diagnose diseases by discerning similar symptoms.
Anyway, to solve this issue and provide an appropriate answer for the above question, the following points should be noted:
The conditions leading to acquiring capabilities are not restricted to material conditions. Water, for instance, has a certain molecular attraction force; however, this feature may be temporarily lost in accordance with the wishes of a divinely saint or prophet, such as what happened to the Nile when the Prophet Moses cleaved a way through water; or what happened to the fire when it became cold for the prophet Abraham.
Therefore, if we have a broader look at the universe, having faith in all material and spiritual factors effective in it, we may well conclude that the capabilities of all creatures are based on a certain order and discipline, and that divinely granted capabilities mean what God has granted each creature according to its own aptness by observing all material and spiritual principles.

The Creation of the Prophets
Question no. 27: The Quran says, 'Lo! Allah preferred Adam and Noah and the Family of Abraham and the Family of 'Imran above (all His) creatures'75; if God has given the prophets superiority from the day they were created, is this not a kind of discrimination?
The creation based on a proper system necessitates a series of differences. For example, human body is a systematic creation, and this necessitates the existence of differences among body members. Accordingly, some cells such as brain cells are responsible for directing body functions and movements of all body members. The bones keep the strength of the body members. These privileges are accompanied by some responsibilities. Thus, the prophets, while enjoying privileges, have great responsibilities and experience onerous hardships. Other human beings have much less responsibilities. Thus, these privileges are no discrimination, because:
Firstly, they are based on deserts, one of the conditions of which is the actions done with the prophets' free will – which God knows pristinely.
Secondly, the leadership of the society necessitates giving some privileges along with responsibilities to the qualified persons. This is a grace to mankind, aiming at the felicity of human beings.
It is worth noting that the prophets, along with their great responsibilities and privileges, are subject to severe punishments for any little mistakes and dereliction of duty.
The prophet Jonah, for instance, though he tried much to guide his own people to the right path, was imprisoned in the darkness of the sea inside a whale because he did not have the necessary patience with those people.76
Similarly, on the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) we read in the Holy Quran:
«وَ لَوْ تَقَوَّلَ عَلَيْنا بَعْضَ الْأَقاوِيلِ لَأَخَذْنا مِنْهُ بِالْيَمِينِ ثُمَّ لَقَطَعْنا مِنْهُ الْوَتِينَ فَما مِنْكُمْ مِنْ أَحَدٍ عَنْهُ حاجِزِينَ»
'And if the messenger were to invent any sayings in Our name, We would certainly have seized him by the right hand, Then We would certainly have cut off his aorta. And not one of you could have withheld Us from him.'77
Of course, the Prophet had not such a fault; rather, he did much more than what he was expected to do; as the Quran says:
«طه ما أَنْزَلْنا عَلَيْكَ الْقُرْآنَ لِتَشْقى»
'Tā-Hā, We have not sent down the Qur'an to thee to be (an occasion) for thy distress,…'78
Indeed, the voluntary personal characteristics of the prophet show their capabilities to take responsibilities, and the Almighty God, knowing their future, gave them the responsibility of prophethood. As we read in the Holy Quran:
«اللّهُ أَعْلَمُ حَيْثُ يَجْعَلُ رِسالَتَهُ سَيُصِيبُ الَّذِينَ أَجْرَمُوا صَغارٌ عِنْدَ اللّهِ وَ عَذابٌ شَدِيدٌ بِما كانُوا يَمْكُرُونَ»
'… Allah best knows where He places His message. There shall befall those who are guilty humiliation from Allah and severe chastisement because of what they planned.'79

Creation of the Angels
Question no. 28: Why have the angles been created? Does God need their help?
A systematic and methodic creation necessitates hierarchies. Existence of means for emanation and grace not only causes those means to achieve perfection but also allows the creatures in lower ranks to achieve growth and perfection. The creation system is such that the roots of a tree absorb water and fetch it through the stem to the leaves. Here, the rainfall and efforts of gardeners and the like all become meaningful and the whole world is filled with vitality and joy. Otherwise, all the creatures are afflicted with laxity and indolence.
The Wise God has established the universe on a fine and strong basis. Such a system necessitates a hierarchy. This hierarchy starts from divine realm, comes down through the realm of divine power to the celestial realm, and ends in the lowest rank in material world. It is in this hierarchy that the status of angels is defined.
The great divine angels each have a certain responsibility; as the angel Gabriel and the angels under his command has the responsibility to convey God's messages and revelations to His servants.80 The Angel Michael and the angels commanded by him are responsible for providing the people with their share of sustenance81, and the angel Azrael (angel of death) and the angels commanded by him are responsible to seize the creatures' souls and make them die.82 The angel Seraphiel (blaster of the Trumpet) and the angels under him are responsible to change the whole universe.83All these show that the universe is systematic and that all its elements are working with God's permission.

Creation of Jinn
Question no. 29: What is jinni? Why has it been created and what is its effect in human life?
The Nature of Jinn
In the universe, there are some invisible creatures not discernable through the natural sensory preceptors. One group of them is jinn. In principle, the word 'jinn' means 'covered' as it is invisible for human beings. The Quran affirms the existence of such a creature, and there is a chapter in the Quran called 'Jinn'. Sometime, the Quran calls this creature 'jānn'.84
The real nature of this creature is not quite known to us; however, we may know some of its features through some of the Quranic verses and transmitted traditions. The followings are among them:
1. Jinn are created from fire and their creation was before the man's creation;85
2. They are legally competent and responsible like human beings;86
3. Some of them are believers and some others are unbelievers; some are rightful and others are wrongdoers;87
4. Some are male and some others are female, and they procreate;88
5. They live and die;89
6. They are conscious and willful and can move rapidly, as we see in the story of Solomon and the throne of Belqays (the queen of Sabā).90
7. They can be captured by human beings; in this regard, the Quran has only referred to the story of Solomon under whose command were the jinn as well as the birds, beasts, and men;91
8. It is mentioned in the transmitted traditions that the believer the jinn are captured and commanded by the prophets and Imams and serve them. Those divinely saints who have authority with God's permission can bring the unbeliever jinn under their control as well;92
9. Based on some of the Quranic verses, it is known that the jinn have converted to Islam by the Prophet.93
It has not been clearly stated where the jinn are located in the earth, but some of the transmitted traditions have referred to places where they are more frequently present.94

Why Jinn?
Considering the above explanations, it is clear that the jinn have free will and volition, but are lower than men as far as consciousness is concerned. Jinn are, as human beings, a creature possible to be created and granted the divine emanation and grace. They have been created as willful creatures and shown the way of perfection through knowledge and worship:
«وَ ما خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَ الاْءِنْسَ إِلاّ لِيَعْبُدُونِ»
'I created the jinn and humankind only that they might worship Me.'95
In other words, the same reason for creation of mankind applies to the creation of the jinn.
Jinn and the Mankind
We synoptically know that sometimes human beings influence the jinn's life and vice versa. However, due to the invisibility of the jinn, this has been accompanied by many factions and cannot be trusted.
The jinn can be in touch with some human beings. According to traditions, they were in touch with the prophets and the Imams. Sometimes, the relationship of some individuals with the jinn – believers or unbelievers – may result in their misguidance and transgression:
«وَ أَنَّهُ كانَ رِجالٌ مِنَ الاْءِنْسِ يَعُوذُونَ بِرِجالٍ مِنَ الْجِنِّ فَزادُوهُمْ رَهَقاً»
'And indeed (O Muhammad) individuals of humankind used to invoke the protection of individuals of the jinn, so that they increased them in revolt [against Allah].'96
Therefore, the jinn – believers or unbelievers – come in touch with human beings. This fact has been explicitly mentioned in the Quran and traditions.97

Creation of Satan
Question no. 30: Why did God create Satan and give him opportunity to misguide human beings?
Firstly, it is worth mentioning that although Satan disobeyed God, he is one of God's creatures, having a role in the universe. Some of the great mystics and philosophers have likened Satan to a trained dog that bothers strangers but not the insiders.
On those who deserve the Satan's temptations and bothers, the Holy Quran says:
«أَ لَمْ تَرَ أَنّا أَرْسَلْنَا الشَّياطِينَ عَلَى الْكافِرِينَ تَوًزُّهُمْ أَزًّا»
'Do you not see that We have sent the devils against the unbelievers, inciting them by incitement?'98
And also:
«إِنَّما سُلْطانُهُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ يَتَوَلَّوْنَهُ وَ الَّذِينَ هُمْ بِهِ مُشْرِكُونَ»
'His power is only over those who make a friend of him, and those who ascribe partners unto Him [Allah].'99
These verses clearly show that those who have willfully disobeyed God's authority deserve to be captured by Satan. But as for the virtuous people who enjoy divine inspirations, the Quran says:
«إِنَّ عِبادِي لَيْسَ لَكَ عَلَيْهِمْ سُلْطانٌ إِلاّ مَنِ اتَّبَعَكَ مِنَ الْغاوِينَ»
'Surely. as regards My servants, you have no authority ,over them except those who follow you of the deviators.'100
Now, there are three items (God, man, and Satan) to be discussed in this question:
A) God
1. God's purpose in creating man is for him to achieve perfection; this purpose is related to God's action not to Him as the agent, because God Himself is the absolute perfect and no purpose can be ascribed to Him.
2. The manifestation of the man's perfection is 'knowing God', and this knowledge is dependent on worship. Thus, God says, 'I created the jinn and humankind only that they might worship Me.'101
By worshiping and knowing the absolute essence of God, the man's perfection is realized.
3. The man's worship can be regarded as moving towards the highest perfection only when he chooses this path voluntarily and knowingly, not when he worships God genetically like angles, having no power to disobey Him:
«بَلْ عِبادٌ مُكْرَمُونَ لا يَسْبِقُونَهُ بِالْقَوْلِ وَ هُمْ بِأَمْرِهِ يَعْمَلُون»
'…Nay! They are honored servants; They do not precede Him in speech and (only) according to His commandment do they act.'102

His face made a manifestation, the angels saw but with no love
It became like a fire and burnt the man

Thus, God created man as a creature with freewill, showing him the way to both felicity and misery:
«إِنَّا هَدَيْناهُ السَّبِيلَ إِمَّا شاكِراً وَ إِمَّا كَفُورا»
'Surely We have shown him the way: he may be thankful or unthankful.'103
4. Here, the human examination is considered as one of the intermediary goals of creation. Human examination is the manifestation of his freewill, and this fact is variously stated in the Quran:
«إِنَّا خَلَقْنَا الاْءِنْسانَ مِنْ نُطْفَةٍ أَمْشاجٍ نَبْتَلِيه»
'Lo! We create man from a drop of thickened fluid to test him;…'104
5. A real examination is possible only if the man can choose between two ways – good and evil. God regards the man the crème de la crème of his creatures, congratulating Himself only for creating the man:
«فَتَبارَكَ اللَّهُ أَحْسَنُ الْخالِقِين»
'So blessed be Allah, the Best of creators!'105
Accordingly, He has given the man many facilities for choosing the way to achieve goodness and perfection, including the following ones:
a) The man's creation according to an innate leaning towards God:
«فَأَقِمْ وَجْهَكَ لِلدِّينِ حَنِيفاً فِطْرَتَ اللَّهِ الَّتِى فَطَرَ النَّاسَ عَلَيْها»
'Then set your face upright for religion in the right state-- the nature made by Allah in which He has made men…'106
b) God's coming into the scene to help human beings:
«قُلِ اللَّهُ يَهْدِى لِلْحَقِّ»
'Say: Allah guides to the truth.'107
c) Inspiring the man on good and evil to help him choose the right path:
«فَأَلْهَمَها فُجُورَها وَ تَقْواها»
'Then He inspired it to understand what is right and wrong for it.'108
d) Making 'faith in God' a favorite feeling in the man's nature:
«حَبَّبَ إِلَيْكُمُ الاْءِيمانَ وَ زَيَّنَهُ فِى قُلُوبِكُم»
'But Allah has endeared the Faith to you, and has made it beautiful in your hearts,…'109
e) Offering special assistance to the believers in their life:
«إِنَّا لَنَنْصُرُ رُسُلَنا وَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا فِى الْحَياةِ الدُّنْيا»
'Most surely We help Our messengers, and those who believe, in this world's life…'110
f) Opening the ways of guidance in proportion to efforts made by human beings:
«اَلَّذينَ جاهَدُوا فِينا لَنَهْدِيَنَّهُمْ سُبُلَنا وَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَمَعَ الْمُحْسِنِين»
'And (as for) those who strive hard for Us, We will most certainly guide them in Our ways;…'111
6. With so many facilities in the good side, it was necessary to have a force in the evil side as well, so that the real examination would be realized. Contrary to divine inspirations, these forces tempt the man to be evil so that he may choose between two invitations, struggling with evil factors to achieve the highest levels of voluntary perfection. Thus, to realize God's purpose in creating the man, it was necessary for Him to create such forces in the universe so that there may be a possibility of distinguishing between good and evil and struggling in the path of truth.
7. With Satan's disobedience and his banishment from divine presence as well as his requesting opportunity to tempt human beings, God found him the best way to achieve His goal, and granted him opportunity to be a tempting agent for human beings against divine guidance. However, God did not give him any power more than this to have authority over the believers:
«وَ ما كانَ لَهُ عَلَيْهِمْ مِنْ سُلْطانٍ إِلاَّ لِنَعْلَمَ مَنْ يُومِنُ بِالاْخِرَةِ مِمَّنْ هُوَ مِنْها فِى شَكٍّ»
'And he has no authority over them, but that We may distinguish him who believes in the hereafter from him who is in doubt concerning it; and your Lord is the Preserver of all things.'112

B) The Man
1. The man is a two-dimensional creature, consisting of body and soul. Due to his soul – which is a breath of divine spirit113 – he has leaning towards perfection and moving towards the goal of his creation. The Quran refers to this in the following verse:
«يا أَيُّهَا الاْءِنْسانُ إِنَّكَ كادِحٌ إِلى رَبِّكَ كَدْحاً فَمُلاقِيه»
'O man! Surely you must strive (to attain) to your Lord, a hard striving until you meet Him.'114
Truly, there are two forces inside the man: one driving him to higher levels of perfection, and the other directing him to fall and decline; the latter force is called Nafs-e Ammāra (the soul enjoining to evil):
«إِنَّ النَّفْسَ لَأَمَّارَةٌ بِالسُّوءِ إِلاَّ ما رَحِمَ رَبِّى»
'Lo! The (human) soul enjoins unto evil.'115
3. The two abovementioned forces make the human nature a free one to choose between good and evil. Therefore, we may understand the philosophy of divine examination by analyzing the human nature.
4. The internal force guiding to good is supported by external forces with so many facilities. In the previous section, we referred to the divine special supports. Here, we mention another instance of these supports (angels' special assistance). God sends these forces to assist those who are resolute in the right path:
«إِنَّ الَّذِينَ قالُوا رَبُّنَا اللَّهُ ثُمَّ اسْتَقامُوا تَتَنَزَّلُ عَلَيْهِمُ الْمَلائِكَةُ»
'(As for) those who say: Our Lord is Allah, then continue in the right way, the angels descend upon them.'116
5. Likewise, the internal force leaning towards evil must be supported by external forces; Satan was chosen as the best choice to do so.
6. As a result, Satan, while inviting to evil, is considered to be a good item in the whole universe, as he unconsciously causes those who seek perfection to achieve – in an internal struggle between right and wrong – the highest degrees of perfection.
C) Satan
1. Satan is the manifestation of disobedience; he was – as the Quran asserts – among the jinn:
«كانَ مِنَ الْجِنِّ فَفَسَقَ عَنْ أَمْرِ رَبِّه»
'He was of the jinn, so he transgressed the commandment of his Lord.'117
2. The jinn are, like human beings, creatures with freewill; they also have been created to achieve perfection through knowledge and worship:
«وَ ما خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَ الْإِنْسَ إِلاَّ لِيَعْبُدُون»
'I created the jinn and humankind only that they might worship Me.'118
So, the Satan was not created to tempt human beings and mislead them. Rather, he chose this path voluntarily. God just allowed him to do so like any other creature enjoying freewill.
3. Satan voluntarily worshiped God for such a long time that God put him among the angels. As Imam Ali (PBUH) says, this period was six thousand years. However, we do not know whether these years were on a worldly basis or on an otherworldly one (with each day equaling one thousand years on a worldly basis):
«فِى يَوْمٍ كانَ مِقْدارُهُ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ مِمَّا تَعُدُّون»
'…in a day the measure of which is a thousand years of what you count.'119
4. Satan, misusing his freewill and following a wrong deduction (I am from fire and the man is from clay, so I am better than him)120, disobeyed God's command in prostrating before Adam. This command was in itself a kind of examination for Satan, and he chose the wrong path, falling from grace and being deprived from angles' accompaniment. This shows all creatures enjoying freewill that their freewill necessitates being in a state of hope and fear, and seeking divine assistance in any moment.
5. God is absolutely just and does not oppress anyone; He gives everyone a reward better than their action. But Satan disobeyed Him and did not do His command. Such a creature was not allowed to live in Paradise. However, he had worshiped God for a long time, and God wanted to give him a proportionate reward. This reward was granting Satan's request, who requested an opportunity to tempt human beings and mislead them. This has been mentioned in some transmitted traditions.121
6. When God granted Satan's request, he stated his threats, speaking of tempting human beings to lead them astray.122 In response, God threatened him with hellfire:
«لَمَنْ تَبِعَكَ مِنْهُمْ لَأَمْلَأَنَّ جَهَنَّمَ مِنْكُمْ أَجْمَعِين»
'…whoever of them will follow you, I will certainly fill hell with you all.'123
God wanted Satan to do his best in this way, so that God's pure servants would be distinguished from impure ones:
«وَ اسْتَفْزِزْ مَنِ اسْتَطَعْتَ مِنْهُمْ بِصَوْتِكَ وَ أَجْلِبْ عَلَيْهِمْ بِخَيْلِكَ وَ رَجِلِكَ وَ شارِكْهُمْ فِى الْأَمْوالِ وَ الْأَوْلادِ وَعِدْهُم»
'And excite any of them whom thou canst with thy voice, and urge thy horse and foot against them, and be a partner in their wealth and children, …'124
Finally, it is necessary to note the following two points:
a) Satan is just able to deceive those who willingly accept his authority:
«كُتِبَ عَلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ مَنْ تَوَلاَّهُ فَأَنَّهُ يُضِلُّهُ وَ يَهْدِيهِ إِلى عَذابِ السَّعِير»
'For him it is decreed that whoso takes him for friend, he verily will mislead him and will guide him to the punishment of the Flame.'125
«إِنَّما سُلْطانُهُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ يَتَوَلَّوْنَهُ وَ الَّذِينَ هُمْ بِهِ مُشْرِكُونَ»
'His authority is only over those who befriend him and those who associate others with Him.'126
Satan, as he himself has said, has no authority over God's purified servants:
«إِلاَّ عِبادَكَ مِنْهُمُ الْمُخْلَصِينَ»
'Except Thy servants from among them, the purified ones.'127
God also has affirmed this fact, excluding his special servants from being deceived by satanic temptations:
«انّ عِبادى لَيْسَ لَكَ عَلَيْهِمْ سُلْطانٌ»
'Surely, as regards My servants, you have no authority over them…'128
This is because these God's servants have voluntarily chosen the divine path, distancing themselves from satanic temptations and deception by relying on divine promises.
b) Satan has no genetic control over human beings, because his rank is equal to or lower than the rank of human beings. According to the Quranic verses, Satan's power is only in tempting human beings through false promises and attracting them to vices:
«الشَّيْطانُ يَعِدُكُمُ الْفَقْرَ وَ يَأْمُرُكُمْ بِالْفَحْشاءِ»
'The devil promises you destitution and enjoins on you lewdness…'129
He also adorns wrong deeds in the eyes of human beings:
«لَأُزَيِّنَنَّ لَهُمْ فِى الْأَرْض»
'…I verily shall adorn the path of error for them in the earth…'130
It is interesting that when someone is deceived by Satan, he is then repulsed by Satan and left alone:
«كَمَثَلِ الشَّيْطانِ إِذْ قالَ لِلاْءِنْسانِ اكْفُرْ فَلَمَّا كَفَرَ قالَ إِنِّى بَرِى‏ءٌ مِنْك»
'Like the Satan when said to the man 'be unbeliever'; and when he became an unbeliever, the Satan said I repulse you.'131
More interestingly, in the Day of Judgment, the followers of the Satan would reproach him for deceiving them. However, the Satan would explicitly assert that 'I was just giving false promises, which you believe them and neglected the divine promises. Thus, you must blame yourselves, not me. Here I cannot help you, nor can you help me':
«وَ قالَ الشَّيْطانُ لَمَّا قُضِيَ الْأَمْرُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَعَدَكُمْ وَعْدَ الْحَقِّ وَ وَعَدْتُكُمْ فَأَخْلَفْتُكُمْ وَ ما كانَ لِى عَلَيْكُمْ مِنْ سُلْطانٍ إِلاَّ أَنْ دَعَوْتُكُمْ فَاسْتَجَبْتُمْ لِى فَلا تَلُومُونِى وَ لُومُوا أَنْفُسَكُمْ ما أَنَا بِمُصْرِخِكُمْ وَ ما أَنْتُمْ بِمُصْرِخِيَّ»
'And Satan says, when the matter hath been decided: Lo! Allah promised you a promise of truth; and I promised you, then failed you. And I had no power over you save that I called unto you and ye obeyed me. So blame not, but blame yourselves. I cannot help you, nor can ye help me…'132
Accordingly, God has asserted that Satan's artifices are weak compared to the divine strong band:
«إِنَّ كَيْدَ الشَّيْطانِ كانَ ضَعِيفًا»
'Surely the strategy of the Satan is weak.'133
However, the man is also a weak creature,134and cannot achieve his goal in choosing the right path and moving in it without trust in God's power.
The final point: Satan's temptation follows the man's shunning his inner call, and divine inspirations, and those who voluntarily become disbelievers, losing the opportunity to accompany the most pure men on the earth, deserve to be trapped by satanic temptations. This is a kind of divine punishment for them in this world:
«أَ لَمْ تَرَ أَنَّا أَرْسَلْنَا الشَّياطِينَ عَلَى الْكافِرِينَ تَوزُّهُمْ أَزًّا»
'Do you not see that We have sent the devils against the unbelievers, inciting them by incitement?'135
 


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43. Ja’far Subhānī, Dārwīnīsm yā Takāmul-e Anwā’, Qom, Towhīd Publications.
44. Hamid Reza Shākerīn and Muhammad Reza Kāshefī, Dīn Shenāsī wa Adyān wa Madhāheb, Qom, Ma’āref Publications.
45. Ghulām Hussein Tawakkulī (trans.), Dīn wa Cheshm Andāzhā-ye Now (Muhammad Legenhausen).
46. ‘Abbās Yazdānī, Rāz-e Jāwedānegī.
47. Muhammad Taqi Ja’farī, Zendegī-ye Īdeāl wa Īdeāl-e Zendegī, Tehran, Institute for Compilation of Works by ‘Allama Ja’farī
48. Muhammad Sāleh Māzandarānī, Sharh-e Usūl-e Kāfī.
49. Murtezā Mutahharī, ‘Adl-e Īlāhī, Tehran, Sadrā Publications, 1374 SH.
50. Ayatullah Jawādī Āmulī, ‘Irfān wa Hemāsa, Qom, Asrā Publications.
51. Bahā’uddīn Khurramshāhī (trans.), ‘Ilm wa Dīn (Ian Barbour), Tehran, Center for University Publications.
52. Farīd Wajdī, ‘Alā Atlāl al-Madhhab al-Māddī, Egypt, Dār al-’Ilm.
53. Kāzem ‘Imādī (trans.), Falāsifa-ye Buzurg (Cresson Andre).
54. ‘Abdullāh Nasrī, Falsafa-ye Āfarīnesh, Qom, Ma’āref Publications.
55. Abul-Qāsem Pūr Husseinī (trans.), Falsafa-ye Akhlāq
56. ‘Abdullāh Nasrī, Falsafa-ye Khelqat-e Insān, Tehran, Cultural Institute for Contemporary Science and Thought.
57. Muhammad Taqi Ja’farī, Falsafa wa Hadaf-e Zendegī, Institute for Compilation and Publication of Works by ‘Allama Ja’farī.
58. Sayyid Qutb, Fī Ẓelāl-l Qur’ān, Tehran, Ihsān Publications.
59. Nāser Makārem Shīrāzī, Fīlsūf Namāhā, Tehran, Islamic Publications.
60. Sayyid Ali Akbar Qurayshī, Qāmūs-e Qur’ān, Tehran, Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmiyya.
61. Mahdī Bāzargān, Qur’ān, Tabī’at, wa Takāmul.
62. Khalīl bin Ahmad al-Farāhīdī, Kitāb al-’Ayn (arranged according to dictionary letters), Beirut, Dār al-Kutub al-’Ilmiyya.
63. Muhammad Hassan Qadrdān Qarā-Malekī, Kalām-e Falsafī, Qom, Wuthūq Publications, 1st ed.
64. Abī Fazl Jamāluddīn bin Manzūr al-Ifrīqī al-Misrī, Lisān al-’Arab, Beirut, Dār al-Ihyā al-Turāth al-’Arabī.
65. Ahad Shahsā (trans.), Mājarāhā-ye Jāwidān dar Falsafa (Henry Thomas), Tehran, Quqnūs Publications.
66. ‘Abdullāh Nasrī, Mabānī-ye Insān Shināsī dar Qurān, Tehran, Cultural Institute for Contemporary Science and Thought.
67. Ayatullāh Jawādī Amulī, Mabda’ wa Ma’ād, Qom, Asrā Publications.
68. Jalāluddīn Muhammad Mowlawī, Mathnawī Ma’nawī, ed. by Reynold Nicholson, Tehran, Mowlā Publications 1360 SH.
69. Murtezā Mutahharī, Collection of Works, Tehran, Sadrā Publications.
70. Sheikh Ali Namāzī, Mustadrak Safīnat al-Bihār.
71. Murtezā Mutahharī, Ma’ād, Tehran, Sadrā Publications.
72. Muhammad Hassan Qadrdān Qarā-Malekī, Ma’ād Shināsī.
73. Hamid Reza Shākerīn, Ma’ād Shināsī, Tehran, Center for Young Thought.
74. Muhammad Taqī Mesbāh Yazdī, Ma’āref-e Qur’ān, Qom, Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute, 1378 SH.
75. Bābak Ahmadī, Mu’ammā-ye Mudernīta, Tehran, Central Publications.
76. Murtezā Mutahharī, Maālāt-e Falsafī, ‘Ilal-e Gerāyesh bi Māddīgarī, Tehran, Sadrā Publications.
77. Ja’far Subhānī, Manshūr-e Jāwīd, Qom, Imam Sādiq School's Publications.
78. Ahad Farāmarz Qarā-Malekī, Mowzi’-e ‘Ilm wa Dīn dar Khelqat-e Insān, Ārāya Publications.
79. Hamid Reza Sheikhī (trans.), Mīzān al-Hekma (Muhammad Muhammadī Reyshahrī), Qom, Dār al-Hadīth 1377 SH.
80. Nahj al-Balāgha, Sermon no. 192.
81. Muhammad bin Hassan Hurr al-Āmilī, Wasā’il al-Shī’a, Qom, The Institute of Ālu-l Bayt Li-Ihyā al-Turāth 1414 AH.
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Magazines
84. Mas’ūd Imāmī, Zamān-e Damīdan-e Rūh dar Janīn, in Kāwushī Now dar Fiqh-e Islāmī (quarterly), no. 49, Fall1385 SH.
85. Magazine of Islamic Theology, no. 15-18.

English
86. John C. Luick, Humanism, Rutledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Nihilism, vol. 4, p.52, 1998.
1 Ibid, vol. 6, p. 200-202, with summary and some additions.
2 The Quran, Fusselat (41), 10-12
3 Farīd Wajdī, ‘Alā Atlāl al-Madhhab al-Māddī, p. 103-108
4Bahā’uddīn Khurramshāhī (trans.) ‘Ilm wa Dīn (Ian Barbour), p. 169-244
5 Dr. Sahābī, Khelqat-e Insān
6 Tafsīr-e al-Mīzān, vol.4, p. 153; vol.9, p. 8; vol. 16, p. 269
7 Ja’far Subhānī, Darwīnīsm yā Takāmul-e Anwā’, also Makārem Shīrāzī, Fīlsūf Namāhā
8 Muhammad Taqi Mesbāh, Khelqat-e Insān az Nazar-e Qur’ān, (the Qauranic teachings, theology, anthropology, cosmology)
9 Ali Meshkīnī Ardabilī, Takāmul az Nazar-e Qur’ān
10 Murtezā Mutahharī, Philosophical Articles, ‘Ilal-e Girāyish bi Maddīgarī; for further information, see;
a) Ahad Farāmarz Qarāmalekī, Mowze’-e ‘Ilm wa Dīn dar Khelqat-e Insān¸ Ārāya Publications;
b) Dhabīhullāh Dabīr (trans.) Towrāt, Enjīl, Qur’ān wa ‘Ilm (Maurice Bucaille);
c) Kalām-e Islāmī (Islamic Theology) Magazine, no. 15-18
11 Tafsīr-e al-Mīzān, ibid
12 The Quran, Nesā (4), 4.
13 Khisāl, vol. 2, p. 450; Behār al-Anwār, vol. 63, p. 82-83
14 Ja’far Subhānī, Manshūr-e Jāwīd, vol. 4, p. 94; Sayyid Ali Akbar Qurayshī, Qāmūs-e Qur’ān, vol. 1 and 2, p. 49-50.
15 See:
a) Hassan Yūsefī Ishkiwarī, Bāzkhānī-yi Qissay-e Khelqat-e Insān;
b) Muhammad Taqi Ja’farī, Āfarīnish wa Insān;
c) Muhammad Taqi Mesbāh Yazdī, Ma’ārif-e Qur’ān, vol. 1-3
16 The Quran, Dahr (76), 2
17 The Quran, Sajda (32), 8-9
18 The Quran, ‘Alaq (96), 2
19 The Quran, Ghāfer (40), 67
20 The Quran, Qiyāma (75), 36-38
21 The Quran, Hajj (22), 5
22 The Quran, Mu’menūn (23), 14
23 Ibn Manzūr, Lesān al-‘Arab, (al-nutfa wa-natāfa: a little water, hence the sperm is called so)
24 The Quran, Qiyāma (75), 38
25 Tāj al-‘Arūs, p. 6
26 The Quran, Hujurāt (49), 13.
27 Muhammad Ali al-Bārr, Khalq al-Insān bayn al-Tibb wal-Qur’ān, p. 194.
28 Dhabīhullāh Dabīr (trans), Tawrāt, Injīl, Quran wa ‘Ilm (by Maurice Bucaille), p. 270-71.
29 Ibid, p. 272-73.
30 The Quran, Hujurāt (49), 13.
31 Sayyid Muhammad Hussein Tabātabā’ī, al-Mīzān fī Fasīr al-Qur’ān, p. 20.
32 The Quran, Hajj, 5; Ghāfer, 67, and Qiyāma, 38.
33 Ibn Manzūr, Lesān al-‘Arab, p. 10261-10267.
34 Khalīl bin Ahmad Farāhīdī, Tartīb al-Ketāb al-‘Ayn, p. 1296.
35 Muhammad Sādeqī, al-Furqān fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān bil-Qur’ān wal-Sunna, p. 313-330.
36 For example: The Quran, Hajj, 5; Mu’menūn, 14; Qiyāma, 38.
37 The Quran, Mursalāt (77), 20.
38The Quran, Sajda (32), 8.
39 The Quran, Tāreq (86), 6.
40 Khalīl bin Ahmad al-Farāhīdī, Tartīb Ketāb al-‘Ayn, p. 1269.
41 Al-Sehāh
42 Ibn Manzūr, Lesān al-‘Arab, p. 267.
43 The Quran, Hajj (22), 5; Ghāfer (40), 67.
44Tantāwī al-Jawharī, al-Jawāhir fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, p. 4-6.
45 Muhammad Hussein Tabātabā’ī, al-Mīzān fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, vol. 14., p. 344.
46 Tafsīr-e Nemūna,vol. 14, p. 18, 207.
47 Naser bin Sa’īd ‘Abdullāh bin ‘Umar bin Muhammad al-Shīrāzī, Tafsīr al-Bayzāwī, vol. 2, p. 100.
48 Dhabīhullāh Dabīr (trans.), Tawrāt, Injīl, Qur’ān and ‘Ilm (Maurice Bucaille), p. 273.
49 The Quran, Mulk (67), 14.
50 See the Quran, Hajj, 5; Mu’menūn, 14; Ghāfer, 67; and Qiyāma, 37-38.
51 Muhammad Ali al-Bārr, Khalq al-Insān bayn al-Tibb wal-Qur’ān, 189/ 17,18.
52Bucaille’s view and that of al-Bārr are both based on the similar meanings of ‘alaq and ‘alaqa. If they have different meanings, the problem calls for another solution.
53 Ibid, p. 204
54 ibid
55 Al-Munjed, p. 765.
56 Muhammad Sādeqī, al-Furqān fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān bil-Qur’ān wal-Sunna, p. 189/ 17, 18.
57 Tafsīr al-Bayzāwī, vol. 2, p. 100
58 Sayyid Qutb, Fī Zilāl al-Qur’ān, vol. 5, p. 581
59 Ibid, vol.6, p. 16
60 See Khalq al-Insān bayn al-Tibb wal-Qur’ān,p. 369-70.
61 Ibid.
62 The Quran, Sād (38), 72.
63 For further information, see: a) Mas’ūd Imāmī, Zamān-e Damīdan-e Rūh dar Janīn, the article Fiqh (a new research in Islamic Jurisprudence), Quarterly, no. 49, Fall 1385;
a) Amīr Dīwānī, Hayāt-e Jāwidāna;
b) Āyatullāh Mesbāh Yazdī, Ma’ārif-e Qur’ān, vol. 1-3;
c) ‘Abbās Yazdānī, Rāz-e Jāwidānigī
64 Muhammad bin Ibrāhīm Sadruddīn Shīrāzī, al-Asfār al-‘Arba’a, vol. 9, p. 1-4.
65 See: Behār al-Anwār, vol. 10, the chapter on Imam Sādiq’s Argumentations against impious people, p. 176.
66 The Quran, A’rāf (7), 172.
67 Sayyid Jawād Mustafawī (trans.), Usūl-e Kāfī, vol. 3, The Book of Faith and Disbelief, Chapter on the Nature of People Based on Monotheism.
68 Al-Mīzān, vol. 8, p. 320-333.
69 The Quran, Rūm (30), 30.
70 For further information, see: Muhammad Hassan Qadrdān Malekī, Kalām-e Falsafī, p. 73-95, Qom, 1st ed. 1383 SH.
71 Sayyid Muhammad Husseinī Beheshtī, Khudā dar Qur’ān, p. 53, Tehran, Be’that Publications, n.d.
72 The Quran, Al-Rahmān (55), 29. For further information, see:
a) Usūl-e Falsafa wa Rawesh-e Re’ālīsm, vol. 3, 9th article, Murtezā Mutahharī and ‘Allama Tabtabā’ī
b) Āyatullāh Mesbāh Yazdī, Āmūzesh-e Falsafa, vol.2
c) Hamīd Reza Shākerīn, Barāhīn-e Ithbāt-e Wujūd-e Khudā dar Naqdī bar Shubahāt-e John Hauspers, p. 162-64, Tehran, Cultural Institute of Contemporary Science and Thought, 1st ed., 1385 SH.
73 The Quran, Baqara (2), 155.
74 The Quran, Nūr (24), 61.
75 The Quran, Āl-e 'Imrān (3), 33.
76 See the Quran, Anbiyā (21), 87.
77 The Quran, Hāqqa (69), 44-47.
78 The Quran, Tāhā (20), 1-2.
79 The Quran, An'ām (6), 124.
80 The Quran,Baqara (2), 97.
81 The Quran, Nāziāt (46), 5.
82 The Quran, Sajda (32), 11.
83 The Quran, Zumar (39), 68.
84 The Quran, al-Rahmān (55), 39; Hejr (15), 27.
85 The Quran, Hejr (15), 27; al-Rahmān (55), 15.
86 The Quran, Dhāriyāt (51), 56.
87 The Quran, Jinn (72), 11, 14, 15; Ahqāf (46), 31.
88 The Quran, Jinn (72), 6.
89 The Quran, Ahqāf (46), 18. See: 'Allāma Muhammad Hussein Tabātabā'ī, al-Mīzān, Ismā'īliyān Publication Institute, 5th ed (1371), vol. 20, 41.
90 The Quran, Naml (27), 38-39.
91 See: the Quran, Naml (27), 17-39; Sabā (34), 12-14; Anbiyā (21), 82.
92 See: Muhammad Taqī Mesbāh Yazdī, Ma'āref-e Qur'ān, Imam Khomeini Educational and Research Institute. Qom, 2nd ed. (1378), p. 312-313.
93 The Quran, Jinn (72), 1; Ahqāf (46), 29-32.
94 See: Ma'āref-e Qur'ān, p. 309-311.
95 The Quran, Dhāriyāt (51), 56.
96 The Quran, Jinn (72), 6.
97 For further information, see:
a) I'dād Walī Zārbin Shāh Zāldīn, al-Jinn fil-Kitāb wal-Sunna, Dār al-Bashā'r al-Islāmiyya, Beirut, 1st ed. (1996), p. 88-94, and the rest on the nature and the features of the jinn.
b) 'Abudur-Rahmān Muhammad al-Rufā'ī al-Jinn bayn al-Ishārāt al-Qur'āniyya wa 'Ilm al-Fīziyā, Maktab Marbūsī al-Saghīr, 1st ed. (1997)
c) Ali Reza Rejālī, Jinn wa Sheytān, Tehran, Nubūgh Publications, Persian source.
d) Abū Ali Khudā Karamī, Dānestanīhā'i darbāray-e Jinn, p. 41-189.
98 The Quran, Maryam (19), 83.
99 The Quran, Nahl (16), 100.
100 The Quran, Hejr (15), 42.
101 The Quran, Dhāriyāt (51), 56.
102 The Quran, Anbiyā (21), 26-27.
103 The Quran, Insān (76), 3.
104 The Quran, Insān (76), 2. See also: Muhammad (47), 31; Anbiyā (21), 35; Baqara (2), 155; Kahf (18), 7; An'ām (6), 165; Hūd (11), 7; Mulk (67), 2; Fajr (89), 15, …
105 The Quran, Mu'menūn (23), 14.
106 The Quran, Rūm (30), 30.
107 The Quran, Yūnes (10), 35.
108 The Quran, Shams (91), 8.
109 The Quran, Hujurāt (49), 7.
110 The Quran, Ghāfer (40), 51.
111 The Quran, 'Ankabūt (29), 69.
112 The Quran, Sabā (34), 21
113 '…and breathed into him of My spirit' (The Quran, Sād (38), 72)
114 The Quran, Insheqāq (84), 32.
115 The Quran, Yūsuf (12), 53.
116 The Quran, Fusselat (41), 30.
117 The Quran, Kahf (18), 50.
118 The Quran, Dhāriyāt (51), 56.
119 The Quran, Sajda (32), 5.
120 The Quran, Sād (38), 76. ('He said: I am better than he; Thou hast created me of fire, and him Thou didst create of dust.')
121 Al-Mizān, vol. 8, p. 61, quoting Imām Sādeq as mentioned in Tafsīr-e Qomī.
122 The Quran, A'rāf (7), 16, 17; Hejr (15), 40.
123 The Quran,A'rāf (7), 18.
124 The Quran, Asrā (17), 64.
125 The Quran, Hajj (22), 4.
126 The Quran, Nahl (16), 100.
127 The Quran, Sād (38), 84; Hejr (15), 39.
128 The Quran, Hejr (15), 42.
129 The Quran, Baqara (2), 268.
130 The Quran, Hejr (15), 39.
131 The Quran, Hashr (59), 16.
132 The Quran, Ibrāhīm (14), 27, 28.
133 The Quran, Nesā (4), 76.
134 The Quran, Nesā (4), 28.
135 The Quran, Maryam (19), 83.

 

 

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