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اول و پانزدهم هر ماه مهمان شماييم

 

بنام خدا - نسخه سوم نرم افزار پرسمان ويژه اندروید آماده شد

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تعداد مقالات:
1996

بازدید مقالات:
6100327

بازدید سوالات:
2557939



Thirty Questions on The Mystery of Creation - Part 1 بازديد: 1893

  نظر بدهيد  /   راي بدهيد  /   ارسال به دوستان  /   طرح سوال


 

Thirty Questions on The Mystery of Creation
 

By Hamid Reza Shakerin
(In Collaboration with a Group of Researchers)

Translated by
Hussein Masoody

The Goal of Creation 8
The Mystery of Creation 8

 

Question no. 1: Why does man ask about the mystery of creation and the goal of life? How would this knowledge help him? 8
Purposefulness of Creation 11
Question no. 2: How has the Quran described the goal of the man's creation? 11
The Goal of Life 17
Question no. 3: What does the 'goal of life' mean? What are the views of human ideologies in this regard? 17
Question no. 4: What is the goal of life? How can we know that we have identified the right goal? 29
The Reason of Creation 38
Question no. 5: Why did God create the man, and what was His goal? Better say: is the Most High God not self-contained? So why did He created the universe? If you say 'God is graceful, then He must create the universe to be graceful. Is this not a kind of need? 38
Question no. 6: What if God would not create the man and the universe or me? 41
Creation and the "lawlāk …" hadith 44
Question no. 7: As to the hadith "Lawlāk lamā khalaqt-ul-aflāk …wa lawlā Fatima lamā khalaqtukumā" (If you did not exist, I would not create the heavens, …and if the Fatima did not exist, I would not create you two), two questions arise: what does it mean to say, 'the Prophet is the goal of creation'? and is Fatima's position higher than the Prophet's? 44
Perfection and Creation 48
Question no. 8: God has been said to have created us so that we may achieve perfection; now perfection for what? What then? We are said to go to the Paradise; What then? Is being in Paradise forever not boring? 48
Question no. 9: If the goal of man's creation is for him to achieve perfection, why has God not given him all perfection outright and without trouble? 52
Compulsory Life 55
Question no. 10: Can I say, 'I'm not content with my life and live out of compulsion; Are my sins not due to my creator? If God did not create me, I would not commit so many sins and would not be obliged to suffer from so many punishments.' 55
The Philosophy of Instincts 59
Question no. 11: If the main goal of creating man is guiding him to proximity to God, why has he been given the instincts directing him to material pleasures and deceitful worldly sights, to which most men are susceptible? Is this not contradicting the goal and contrary to wisdom? 59
Creation of the Hell 67
Question no. 12: What is the mystery of creation of the Hell? How would a God, more compassionate than a mother, burn his servants in the Hellfire? 67
Creation of Dwellers in the Hell 71
Question no. 13: What is the purpose of creating the man and the universe, while most of the people are dwellers of the Hell? 71
The Quality of Creation 73
Before Creation 73
Question no. 14: Before creating the universe, what was God doing? 73
Creation of Universe 76
Question no. 15: How has the universe been created? Has it been created out of ‘nothing’, while ‘nothing’ has no generation? 76
Creation and the Natural Laws 78
Question no. 16: Have the natural laws been used in creation of the universe and the creatures, or the contrary has taken place in the case of miracles? 78
Periods of Creation 80
Question no. 17: In some verses, the Quran says, ‘We have created the earth in two days’; in some others, it says, ‘We created the earth in six days’. How can this be justified? 80
The Evolution Theory 84
Question no. 18: Was the creation of mankind an all-at-once and independent task, or the result of evolution of other creatures? Does the Quran accept Darwin’s theory of evolution? 84
Early Men 90
Question no. 19: In Islam’s view and that of other divine religions, human beings are children of Adam and Eve on the earth. Scientific findings, however, show that there were human beings, called Cro-Magnon and Neanderthal, who could not speak and had a bent stature. How do you justify these inconsistencies? 90
Embryology 92
Question no. 20: What is the Quran’s view on the stages of the man’s embryonic creation? 92
Creation of the Spirit 109
Question no. 21: What do we mean by ‘spirit’? Can we consider it separated from the body, regarding each as separately created? Then, how can we justify the living nature of the cell? 109
Invalidity of Metempsychosis 111
Question no. 22: Has our spirit been in other bodies prior to coming into our body? What is the religious and rational status of metempsychosis? 111
The World of Dharr (i.e. pre-existence) 117
Question no. 23: Have we humans previously been in the world of dharr? What and how is the world of dharr? 117
Posterior Creation 122
Question no. 24: will God create other creatures after the man’s creation? 122
The Mystery of Differences 123
Question no. 25: If God is just, why are there so many differences and discriminations? Why does He create someone male and the other female, someone blind or deaf and the other sound and safe? Why did He not create all in one form and shape? 123
Question no. 26: It is usually said that the differences among creatures are inherent in them or results from their inherent capacities; if God has granted the capacities, why did He not grant them all equally? 128
Question no. 27: The Quran says, 'Lo! Allah preferred Adam and Noah and the Family of Abraham and the Family of 'Imran above (all His) creatures'; if God has given the prophets superiority from the day they were created, is this not a kind of discrimination? 133
Question no. 28: Why have the angles been created? Does God need their help? 135
Question no. 29: What is jinni? Why has it been created and what is its effect in human life? 137
Question no. 30: Why did God create Satan and give him opportunity to misguide human beings? 141
 

 


The Goal of Creation
 

The Mystery of Creation
Question no. 1: Why does man ask about the mystery of creation and the goal of life? How would this knowledge help him?
Asking questions on the mystery of creation and the goal of life has its roots in the depths of the man's nature. Thus, it is among the most fundamental, the most long-standing and the most long-lasting questions human beings have in mind. All of us ask ourselves 'where have we come from?', 'what have we come for?' 'where are we going?' 'what will be our destiny?', 'what does our happiness lie in and how can we achieve it?'
Jalālddīn Rūmī has well versified this innately posed question as follows:
This is what I think of in days and nights:
'Why am I unaware of my internal states',
I'm quite perplexed why He has made me
Or what was His goal in doing so
Where have I come from, and what have I come for?
Where am I going to, why do you not show me my homeland?
I'm the bird of the Celestial Garden; I'm not from the earth
They have made me a cage out of my body just for some days
How happy is the day when I would fly towards the Beloved
When I would fly in the hope of getting to His court1
Finding the right answers to these questions would be life-giving and the failure here would be fatal. Knowing the mystery of creation is, on the one hand, fulfilling the sense of seeking truth in the man; on the other hand, it is a guiding sign in his life and is a link between 'now' and the near and far 'future'. Awareness of the goal of life would be a source for cause, responsibility, zeal, movement, and peace; and losing the goal in life would be a source for suffering, stress, narcotization, irresponsibility, and so on. 2
The French scientist, B. Saint Hillaire, in his introduction to Aristotle's Ethics, quotes him as saying: 'The man has started to struggle himself; he does not want to know his origin and what the sacred ideal is to educate his soul to achieve it.'3
As Humā’ī puts it:
Oh Sanā! Though the universe is an ornamented garden,
We have harvested nothing from it but some weed
On the importance of finding the goal of life and the role of religion in this sphere, Carl Gustav Jung says, 'Among all the patients I encountered in the second half of my life, no one had a problem in the last stage, except finding an attitude toward life. It can be surely said that all of them felt ill because they have lost what the live religions of every age would present to their followers, and none of them were really cured before finding their real religious insight'.4

Purposefulness of Creation
Question no. 2: How has the Quran described the goal of the man's creation?
In the Quran's view, the universe has not been created vainly; rather, all its parts and elements have been created with a specific goal and purpose. The purposefulness of creation of the universe and the man has been noted in many of the Quranic verses, among them:
إِنَّ فِي خَلْقِ السَّماواتِ وَ الْأَرْضِ وَ اخْتِلافِ اللَّيْلِ وَ النَّهارِ لاَياتٍ لِأُولِي الْأَلْبابِ. الَّذِينَ يَذْكُرُونَ اللّهَ قِياماً وَ قُعُوداً وَ عَلى جُنُوبِهِمْ وَ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ فِي خَلْقِ السَّماواتِ وَ الْأَرْضِ رَبَّنا ما خَلَقْتَ هذا باطِلاً سُبْحانَكَ فَقِنا عَذابَ النّارِ
'Most surely in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of the night and the day there are signs for men who understand. Those who remember Allah standing and sitting and lying on their sides and reflect on the creation of the heavens and the earth: Our Lord! Thou hast not created this in vain! Glory be to Thee; save us then from the chastisement of the fire.'5
The above verses prompt one to reflect, and state that observation goes to nowhere without reflection and pondering.
In another verse, the Quran says:
رَبُّنَا الَّذِي أَعْطى كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلْقَهُ ثُمَّ هَدى
'...Our Lord is He Who gave to everything its creation, then guided it (to its goal)'.6
In this verse, two fundamental principles have been mentioned: firstly, God has granted all creatures what they have needed. Secondly, all creatures have been guided in a way that they may use all their forces to survive and to achieve their final goal.
Purposefulness of the Man's Creation
The Quran stresses the purposefulness of the man's creation in particular:
أَفَحَسِبْتُمْ أَنَّما خَلَقْناكُمْ عَبَثاً وَ أَنَّكُمْ إِلَيْنا لا تُرْجَعُونَ
Did you then think that We had created you in vain and that you shall not be returned to Us?7
أَيَحْسَبُ الاْءِنْسانُ أَنْ يُتْرَكَ سُدًى
'Does man think that he is to be left to wander without an aim?'8
The above verses show that:
1. The man has not been created vainly and his creation is purposeful.
2. He has not been left to himself, and is always guided, assisted and supervised by God.
3. The final goal for man's creation is the very origin of creation, that is God.
Other Quranic verses uncover the mysteries of the creation in detail and with some elaboration; such as the followings:
A) Knowledge
اللّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ سَبْعَ سَماواتٍ وَ مِنَ الْأَرْضِ مِثْلَهُنَّ يَتَنَزَّلُ الْأَمْرُ بَيْنَهُنَّ لِتَعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللّهَ عَلى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ وَ أَنَّ اللّهَ قَدْ أَحاطَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عِلْماً
'Allah is He Who created seven heavens, and of the earth the like of them; the decree continues to descend among them, that you may know that Allah has power over all things and that Allah indeed encompasses all things in (His) knowledge.'9
In this verse, the man's awareness of God's absolute knowledge and power (knowing God, which constitutes the epistemic dimension of the man's perfection) has been noted as the goal of the creation.
B) Test and Trial
الَّذِي خَلَقَ الْمَوْتَ وَ الْحَياةَ لِيَبْلُوَكُمْ أَيُّكُمْ أَحْسَنُ عَمَلاً
'Who created death and life that He may try you-- which of you is best in deeds; and He is the Mighty, the Forgiving.'10
The divine trial is not aimed at discovering the hidden mysteries; rather, its purpose is to prepare the conditions for the actualization of man's potentials and talents and to make them flourish. Since the man is a free-willed creature and his perfection is volitional, the divine trial for him is in such that puts all conditions for choosing the right and the wrong path at his proposal, so that he may actuate his potentials to choose the right path.
C) Worship
ما خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَ الاْءِنْسَ إِلاّ لِيَعْبُدُونِ
'And I have not created the jinn and the men except that they should serve Me.'11
Here, worshiping the Glorified God has been mentioned as the goal of creation. In this regard, some points are worth noting:
a) According to the Quranic worldview, any positive movement and action done through the motivation of approaching God is a kind of worship, and worship is not restricted to special rituals such as prayers and devotional services. Any scientific, economic, political, ... activity – if done in concordance with the divine value system and motivations – is an act of worship, and the man can have an all-out divinely mood in all his states (even in eating, sleeping, dying, and living), and move towards approaching God:
قُلْ إِنَّ صَلاتِي وَ نُسُكِي وَ مَحْيايَ وَ مَماتِي لِلّهِ رَبِّ الْعالَمِينَ
Say, 'Surely my prayer and my sacrifice and my life and my death are (all) for Allah, the Lord of the worlds'.12
Of course, the worship in its particular sense – that is prayer and special rituals – has a special and very important status in religion.
b) Considering the philosophy of the acts of worship is of great importance. In this regard, Imam Ali (PBUH) says, 'The Glorified God created the creatures, while He did not need them to worship Him and was secure from their sins; neither the sinners' disobedience would harm Him, nor the obedience of His obedient servants would benefit Him'.13
The Beloved's beauty is independent of our imperfect love
Does a pretty face need to be prettified?
Worship has many positive effects for the life in this world and in the hereafter.14 It has lots of philosophies, including:
1. An innate need and an inherent ideal;
2. A way towards self-finding and freedom from absurdity;
3. A flight to the non-material depth of the existence, and the passage from the materialist limits;
4. Acquiring certainty;
5. The spirit's victory over the body;
6. The soul's health and peace;
7. Authority over the self and control over sensual faculties;
8. Approaching God;
9. A support for morality and faith;
10. A support for the law and society;
11. Nurturing goodwill;
12. Educating and self-nurturing; ...15
D) Divine Mercy
وَ لَوْ شاءَ رَبُّكَ لَجَعَلَ النّاسَ أُمَّةً واحِدَةً وَ لا يَزالُونَ مُخْتَلِفِينَ إِلاّ مَنْ رَحِمَ رَبُّكَ وَ لِذلِكَ خَلَقَهُمْ
'And if your Lord had pleased He would certainly have made people a single nation, and they shall continue to differ. Except those on whom your Lord has mercy; and for this did He create them ...'16
Through a careful consideration of the abovementioned verses, it is clarified that there is no contradiction among these goals; rather, some of them are introductory goals, some are mid-way, and still others are final results. Thus, according to the Quranic verses, the goal of the man's creation is the manifestation of the divine mercy and putting the man in the path of perfection and eternal felicity, which is achieved through an optional choice of the superior path and covering the way to servitude and obedience to the Lord.
 

The Goal of Life
Question no. 3: What does the 'goal of life' mean? What are the views of human ideologies in this regard?
The 'goal of life' shows 'in what direction the man must move, how far he must advance, what his final destination is, what his destiny will be, and where his felicity lies in'. There are two major views that provide answers to these questions: The Nihilism philosophy and the Purposefulness philosophy.
A) Nihilism
Based on its atheistic bases, Nihilism considers no high ideal for humanity, and has nothing to say regarding what the man must be, what ideal he must choose for himself, and in what direction he must move. This idea would turn the life into a complicated issue for the man, which must be necessarily tolerated or be got rid of, if possible.
B) Purposefulness
The 'purposeful' ideologies constitute various schools, each of which having variously spoken of the goal and ideal of the man's life. The major human ideologies are as follows:
1. Hedonism:
This school considers acquiring the highest level of pleasure as the final goal of life. Aristippus (Plato's contemporary) adduces Horace, the Greek poet, to say, 'Grab the moment, as it elapses'.17Epicurus is another pioneer opponent of this school. He also pays attention to the spiritual pleasures.18
Critique: The first challenge facing this ideology is the definition of pleasure, its scope, and its relation to the phenomena pertaining to the man's life. If the transient worldly pleasures are meant here, it would have some drawbacks, including:
1. It presents an unstable, perishable goal for life, which is lost quickly, and without which the life would become meaningless and absurd.
2. The high human values – such as altruism and self-sacrifice – are nullified and the man turns into a desirous, self-indulgent animal.
3. If we present a broad definition of pleasure so that we may also call self-sacrifice and denial of worldly pleasures to achieve spiritual elevation pleasure, then this ideology would have a better order and structure. However, such a thing is not so much consistent with Epicurean doctrines.
2. Egoism:
Some have considered fulfilling the sense of selfishness as the final goal of man's life and his actions. Machiavelli, the founder of this theory offers the following ten principles to the politicians:
- Think of your own benefits and interests;
- Respect no one except yourself;
- Do evil but pretend to intend good
- Be acquisitive and try to collect wealth;
- Be miser;
- Be cruel and relentless;
- Be opportunist and insidious;
- Exterminate your enemies and, if necessary, be relentless to your friends as well;
- Prefer dictatorship to leniency in treating people;
- Think of nothing except war.19
Critique:
This ideology results in nothing except the negation of high human values, turning man into wolf-man (as in Hobbes' philosophy), establishing social Darwinism, creating ideologies such as Mussolini's Fascism and Hitler's National Socialism, and turning the world into a battlefield for selfish individuals.
3. Utilitarianism:
For Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, the principle of 'utility' is the absolute and the most fundamental cornerstone of human's felicity. The highest felicity is the highest possible benefit for the greatest number of individuals. Mill, of course, pays more attention to the qualitative aspects of the public benefits.
Critique:
The above-mentioned ideology faces some challenges, including:
1. What is the criterion for utility and who must specify it?
2. What are different types of utility, and in case there is a contradiction of interests (material and spiritual, individual and social), what criterion must be used to choose one among others?
A major problem is that when the final goal is benefit, this would come under the individuals' wish and desire; and any person would interpret it based on his own desires. However, the highest goal must have an absolute value, so that it would not be a tool in the hands of different persons.
4. Humanism:
Humanism puts the man in God's place, giving him the highest value. Auguste Comte regards worshiping the man as the most sacred obligation, and knows no perfection higher than serving the man. In this school, the hereafter life and the man's relation to God have been denied or neglected. Erich Fromm substitutes 'love of humanity and justice' for God, believing that we must no longer speak of God.20
In the West, humanism has acquired various readings and schools, one of which is the Enlightenment Humanism. According to John C. Luick, the Enlightenment Humanism – which is the dominant reading of the modern age – holds that, '…the man's focus of attention man is not to discover God's will; rather, organizing the life and the society is merely based on human intellect. For these thinkers, the man's value and status is not dependent on the alleged divine origin; rather, it is dependent on the rational system and capacities of his earthly existence. The man's ultimate goal is neither to approach God nor the eternal Paradise; rather, his ultimate goal is to complete the worldly projects offered by the man's faculty of imagination and intellect.'21
Altogether, we may consider humanism as including the following doctrines:
1. The man is the highest value, and the axis of all values is the human benefits, wishes and prestige.
2. The man's value lies not in his divine, spiritual and celestial dimension; rather, it lies in his worldly intellect.
3. The man is self-sufficient in fulfilling his interests and desires.
4. The man's final destination is not the spiritual perfection and approaching God; rather, it is the improvement of the world and worldly life.
Critique:
1. Failure of the atheistic sanctification: although the principle of sanctification and worship is among the man's important needs, any kind of worship would not fulfill his needs; so, we may not readily substitute the man for God, and substitute worshiping him for the divine love and worship. In other words, the valuable worship for the man is the one based on the right and rational worldview. The man, first of all, is seeking a right understanding of existence and a precise and complete worldview; undoubtedly, the deistic worldview enjoys greater depth and more precision, and is more successful in interpreting the existence and presenting a clear and reliable goal.
2. Negating the values: Humanism suffers from two basic deficiencies in evaluating the man: firstly, it ignores the higher aspect of the man's existence and the real values pertaining to it. Secondly, it regards the man as the origin of all values and unconsciously chooses the path leading to the negation of values. Since the principle governing this ideology is the man's worldly interests and desires, the man's benefit is prioritized over any other rule and value, and the truth is supplanted by reality. Accordingly, any value can be sacrificed for the man's wishes and passions.
3. Nihilistic view and despair: By ignoring God and regarding the man as the source of all values and the origin of the first knowledge as well as restricting the goal of the man's life to the limited period of the worldly life – just in a world full of contradictions and struggles – Humanism comes right into nihilism. This is because the humanist world is the liberated one left to itself, and the man makes an all-out effort to survive in it. However, he will finally go to the world of death and obliteration.
4. The man's new slavery: In practice, humanism has opened the way for the greatest number of abuses and victimizing men to proponents of this ideology. Tony Davies holds that humanism has been a slogan for suppressing many of human beings.22 For him, Nazism, Fascism, Stalinism, and Imperialism are all from the same lineage as humanism.23Accordingly, some of the thinkers have identified humanism with the 'anti-human movement', and regarded it as the 'justifier of centers of power', a 'deceptive notion', and the 'call of racial superiority'24. They say, 'it is almost impossible to think of a crime not committed in the name of humanity'.25
5. Naturalism: From this school's viewpoint, the man's efforts in life must be in the same way as the nature calls for. If the human beings act according to what the human nature calls for, they would achieve the ideal life. Among the founders of this ideology is Lao-tse; he believes that civilization and its manifestations are the enemies of the man's felicity, and they must be avoided. The Kalbids of the ancient Greece believed that such things as government, wealth, marriage and the sexual pleasures are all useless; so the man must leave the society and live a simple life to be auspicious.
In the late centuries, Jean Jacques Rousseau had set a return to the nature and escape from the hurly-burley of the civilization as the rubric of his educative programs.

Critique:
There are some drawbacks in this ideology, including the following ones:
1. What is precisely the natural and innate, and how much does it require protection?
2. Are civilization, technology, …in any form and to any limit inconsistent with the man's natural needs? Or is natural living consistent with some forms of civilization and technology?
3. How can we avoid the manifestations of civilization, and how much is the human society capable of doing so?
4. If it is possible to have a natural life in the wide range of the human societies, what is the goal of such a life? Is it 'living without clamor of civilization just for a few days'? This is the very question left unanswered in the abovementioned ideology.
6. Scientism: A group of thinkers regard the empirical science as the highest goal of human's life and his final ideal. Freud believes that God and religion must be supplanted by science which then must be worshiped. The French thinkers, Francis Bacon, Bertrand Russell, and Auguste Comte are proponents of this theory with some degrees of variation.
Critique:
Science is merely recognition and just reveals the relations among phenomena, and is capable of making the man dominate the nature. However, the man needs other things as well. He may achieve the goal of life just in the light of divine worldview and faith, making up his soul with enthusiasm.
On the other hand, it is just the faith that can specify the direction and the ideal of applying the sciences. Science without the faith is a blight and calamity for humanity. If science is the only outlet and the highest ideal in human life, why have so many men been killed by the bombs and gunshots produced through the scientific advancements? Were the Hiroshima tragedy and the like not the result of science without the faith?
The empirical science may well have been successful in recognizing the world and improving it; however, it has failed in knowing the man and reforming him.
General Review:
Now, the following concluding points can be said about all such schools:
1. The lack of a comprehensive and certain worldview is their most fundamental deficiency; since these schools are unsupported by theoretical basis, it is impossible to expect them to delineate the man's final ideal and goal. Therefore, such an invaluable missing gem cannot be acquired except through the divine revelation.
2. Most of these schools have considered a part of the building blocks of worldly life as the goal of the whole life; therefore, they have presented no comprehensive goal proportional to different aspects of the man's existence – especially when we take into consideration the eternity and the ultimate life.
Question no. 4: What is the goal of life? How can we know that we have identified the right goal?
To answer this question, a few points must be considered:
First: the meaning of 'goal'
Goal means 'the destination point for any work, any affair or any way'. A scrutiny here makes us immune from many mistakes. Throughout the history, those who make mistakes have not thought of the right meaning of 'goal' or have not understood it. Thus, they have mistakenly considered what is the necessary element of the life or its parts (and may have been the ideal for some) as the goal for the whole life; accordingly, they have suffered from losses or spiritual failures.
Here, we may mention those who have regarded 'enjoying material pleasures and lusts' as their goal. This idea is wrong, however, since what is a part of life cannot be its goal. For such persons, achieving their goal after their worldly life is meaningless. For instance, those who have set achieving higher scientific levels as their goal not only may fail in achieving their ideal and get a negative desperate insight towards life as a result, but also would have a meaningless goal after the worldly life. Therefore, the 'life' and 'its goal' must be distinct, and what is inside the limit of life may not be regarded as its goal. In any case, when dealing with the question regarding the goal of life, we must take up our position above the natural life, not searching for that goal inside the natural life or its affairs.26
Second: rightness of the goal
It is clear that the scholars and the thinkers have depicted and presented various goals for life. This does not, however, means that all these goals and ideas are right and have been introduced properly. Opposition or contradiction among many of these goals demonstrates the truth of this claim.
An illness, for instance, immediately needs a certain medication. You know that medicine is presented in a pharmacy, but you do not know where it is. Now you understand how important and necessary finding the name and the address of the pharmacy is. In other words, finding the name and the address is as important as knowing the specification of the medicine. Undoubtedly, if the name and the address are given to you wrongly, this may result in an irrecoverable harm to the patient.
In the first steps towards finding and arriving at the goal of life, we face an alarm which is useful for more awareness and caution. It tells us, ‘you would cover this path just once, and would experience it just once.’ This very important and serious warning would make us explore with a precision proportional to the importance of the issue, working with a high level of confidence.
Identifying the goal of life is not, therefore, an easy task to be within our capacity or that of others like us; this is because we ourselves cover this path once for all. It is therefore necessary for us to have a guide directing us to the goal.
Fortunately, we should say the needed guide is present, and have well done the task. The Almighty God, while controlling the whole universe, knows its mystery from beginning to the end; He shows us the goal of life and the way to achieve it step by step.
In the Quranic verses, the Almighty God states the truth that the whole universe, including the man, will return to the heavens, and the destiny of all affairs and the end of life is in God’s hands:
«وَ إِلَى اللّهِ عاقِبَةُ الْأُمُورِ»
" …and Allah's is the end of affairs."27
«إِلَى اللّهِ تُرْجَعُ الْأُمُورُ»
"…and unto Allah all things are returned"28
Accordingly, the goal and the ideal depicted by Islam for the mankind is only an only 'God' beyond which no goal is imaginable. The man, along with the whole universe, is moving towards God; we go – willingly or unwillingly, knowingly or unknowingly – towards that goal. This goal is beyond the material and worldly life; it is even overwhelming the higher worlds. The goal of human life, then, is moving upward and returning to God.
The God has delineated the way to achieve this goal and how to do this return; this is the prophets who must explain this goal as their mission. In fact, by following the prophets and acting according to what they instruct the man, he may achieve the truth of humanity and approaching the Almighty God:
... فَاتَّقُوا اللّهَ يا أُولِى الْأَلْبابِ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا قَدْ أَنْزَلَ اللّهُ إِلَيْكُمْ ذِكْراً * رَسُولاً يَتْلُوا عَلَيْكُمْ آياتِ اللّهِ مُبَيِّناتٍ لِيُخْرِجَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَ عَمِلُوا الصّالِحاتِ مِنَ الظُّلُماتِ إِلَى النُّورِ ...
"….Therefore fear Allah, O ye men of understanding - who have believed!- for Allah hath indeed sent down to you a Message * A Messenger who recites to you the clear communications of Allah so that he may bring forth those who believe and do good deeds from darkness into light."29
«يا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ إِنّا أَرْسَلْناكَ شاهِداً وَ مُبَشِّراً وَ نَذِيراً * وَ داعِياً إِلَى اللّهِ بِإِذْنِهِ وَ سِراجاً مُنِيراً»
"O Prophet! Surely, We have sent you as a witness, and as a bearer of good news and as a warner * And as one inviting to Allah by His permission, and as a light-giving torch."30
The above phrases show the truth that the prophets' mission is inviting people to God, and the prophets light up the man's way towards this goal.
As this light of the East reached Sabā
There came up a hubbub inside Belqis and among the people
The dead souls all flew away
The dead came out of the grave of the body
They would give glad tidings to one another:
There comes a single call from the heavens!
The religions would grow due to that call,
The leaves of the heart would grow green
The breath from Solomon like the Blast of the Trumpet
Liberated the dead from the graves31
The Holy Quran regards 'faith' and 'good deed' as the two kingpins and two provisions in the man's way towards his true goal in life:
«لَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا الاْءِنْسانَ فِى أَحْسَنِ تَقْوِيمٍ * ثُمَّ رَدَدْناهُ أَسْفَلَ سافِلِينَ * إِلاَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَ عَمِلُوا الصّالِحاتِ فَلَهُمْ أَجْرٌ غَيْرُ مَمْنُونٍ»
"Certainly We created the man in the best make * Then We render him the lowest of the low * Except those who believe and do good, so they shall have a reward never to be cut off."32
«إِنَّ الاْءِنْسانَ لَفِى خُسْرٍ * إِلاَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَ عَمِلُوا الصّالِحاتِ وَ تَواصَوْا بِالْحَقِّ وَ تَواصَوْا بِالصَّبْرِ»
"Most surely man is in loss. Except those who believe and do good, and enjoin on each other truth, and enjoin on each other patience."33
Thus, according to the Quranic verses, the following points are clarified:
1. The highest goal of life lies outside of the few days of worldly life; it is at the end of life not in its course;
2. The goal of life is a return to the main truth, that is the Most High God;
3. God has delineated the way to achieve this goal through the prophets. Along with the intellect – which is the internal Guide – He has sent us the prophets and the heavenly Books to guide us and introduce the details of this path;
4. The faith and good deeds are two important kingpins for achieving the true goal of life.
All these points show that the goal of life is the same for students, workers, employees, doctors, mystics, artists, teachers, women, men – briefly stated, for all human beings. However, any individual may achieve the true goal of life to the extent that he enjoys faith and does good deeds.
By this view of goal of life, efforts to achieve faith and good deeds are – while difficult – much pleasant. Turning to God is quite pacifying and coupled with grace. Not achieving it would be much heart-rending; as in exposition of the two couplets of Jalāluddīn Rūmī:

Listen to the reed when it relates
And complaints of the separations:
Since they cut me from the canebrake,
Men and women have cried with my moaning

‘Abdur-Rahmān Jāmī composed:
Nice was the day when before the day and night
Free from sorrow and jolliness,
We were united with the king of the existence
The otherness was quite absent
The essences of the world were unquestionably
Immune to the scientific and objective distinction
Neither were they proved in the tablet of science
Nor were they nurtured at the table of existence
Neither were they distinct from the truth, nor from one another,
All were steeped in the sea of unity
Suddenly the sea of munificence was moved
And made all berserk
The scientific distinction came in
Signs were revealed to anonymity
The Necessary Being and the possible being were differentiated
The rite of duality began
Afterwards, the sea had another wave
And the simple souls came to the coast
Another wave brought up
The general divide between soul and body
For those who are the people of truth
The divide is called the 'absolute idea'
Another wave has come about
The body and bodily have originated
The body became variously designed
Until its final type went far away
The final type is the man
Deprived of the confidential position
He fell to the lower ranks
Far away from his original place
If the poor man does not return from this journey
No one would be abandoned more than him
When the reed begins relating
It complains of these very separations
We hope God will help all human beings seeking truth know the goal of life and achieve it, making them one of the people of knowledge and those who achieve union with God.34

The Reason of Creation
Question no. 5: Why did God create the man, and what was His goal? Better say: is the Most High God not self-contained? So why did He created the universe? If you say 'God is graceful, then He must create the universe to be graceful. Is this not a kind of need?
For this problem to be clarified, we must consider the following points:
a) The man's goal in his actions is to achieve perfection or remove the deficiencies. For example, he eats food to remove hunger, puts on clothes to protect him from coldness and heat, and marries to fulfill the need he feels. He worships God to achieve the final perfection and approach God. He serves the people to achieve the high perfections. God, however, has no defect to remove through His actions, and lacks no perfection to endeavor in achieving it.
b) Goal-orientedness is not always accompanied by need; rather, the more a being is perfect and self-contained, the more it would try in fulfilling others' needs. This is one of the signs of a perfect and benevolent being. The merciful God is seeking no benefit; rather, His most important goal is to be benevolent to others and prepare the ground for growth and perfection of creatures.
Thus, God's purpose of creation is to guide any possible being to its possible and deserving perfection, without pursuing any result for His own pure essence. Any possible thing in the world has its own capability for coming to existence and receiving existential perfections. It is as if all of them request existence and seek perfection. The creation of the universe is a response to these natural and essential requests and, in fact, granting things their proper perfection.
In other words, creation is a grace and bounty on the part of God towards the possible beings. Such a creation has essential goodness and performing such a task needs nothing except the beauty of the action itself. He grants perfection through creation, giving any creature its own necessary tools to achieve perfection. Refraining from doing so is stinginess and a defect. So, it is the worthy feature of the All-Wise God, the absolute perfection, to create the universe in ultimate wisdom and with delicacy. The divine creation is therefore a sage action, even though there were no needs in the process of creation, neither on the part of the creator nor on the part of the creatures.
However, God lacks no perfection; rather, He possesses all perfections – including the absolute bountifulness – in His essence. Thus, He does not acquire bountifulness through creation; rather, He created the universe and the man because of His perfect bountifulness. Accordingly, it has been said that 'creating the universe is essential for God's bountifulness to be manifested, not the prelude or the cause of His bountifulness. The accompaniment of this divine absolute bountifulness and creation of the universe does not mean that 'God must create the universe to be bountiful.' This statement would mean a kind of need. Careful consideration of the previous explanations shows the vice-versa. That is, God is bountiful, and the result is creation of the universe.35
 

Question no. 6: What if God would not create the man and the universe or me?
First, we mention the point that 'creation is a blessing originated from divine grace, and if God would not create something that had the possibility and competence of being created, He could have been criticized. This is because, when viewed rationally and intuitively, 'to be' and 'to have' are always better than 'not to be' and 'not to have'. Now, we investigate each of these three aspects of the question separately:
1. Creation of the universe is essential for divine absolute bountifulness and refraining from creation would be niggardliness and far from God's sacred realm.
2. God's perfect bountifulness necessitates creation of all creatures deserving creation. Therefore, along with creation of inanimate things, plants, animals and angels – each with some limited degree of perfection, and to some extent involuntary – He created a being with unlimited perfection and with both celestial and earthly tendencies, called man. The man can voluntarily transcend all other creatures, and become – through his own voluntary perfection – the greatest divine manifestation. Creation of such a being is essential for God's perfect bountifulness, and he is the most deserving being to be created. Accordingly, God proclaims to have created everything for him.36
3. We study this question from three perspectives:
Firstly, as mentioned before, the divine perfect bountifulness necessitates His creation of anything possible to be created, not refraining from granting existence to them. Thus, each of us has inherently had the capability of receiving divine bounty, and He created us out of His bounty. Otherwise, He would do what would be inconsistent with His absolute perfection.
Secondly, the universe is systematic and based on the causality rule. Just as the whole universe is an effect of God's willing, every phenomenon inside the created world is also an effect of its own cause.
Thirdly, the presence of any cause would necessitate the origination of the related effect, and it would be impossible for the effect to act contrary to its final cause.
All phenomena enjoy a certain order and relation due to this very causality principle. Accordingly, the existence of any phenomenon is both dependent on hundreds of other phenomena and affecting hundreds of others. Now, if we assume that you were not born in spite of your final cause, this would be contrary to the causality principle and would be impossible. If you were not to be born, your final cause also must not be realized. This is just possible if your final cause lacks its own final cause, and this chain of unrealized causes must go on, which then would necessitate a fundamental change in the whole system of creation, and even recess of the whole creation. So, the assumption that God may create all other things except me is an absurd assumption and an invalid and irrational imagination. Based on the philosophical scrutiny, we may say, 'omission of one thing in the universe is equal to omission of everything.'37

Creation and the "lawlāk …" hadith
Question no. 7: As to the hadith "Lawlāk lamā khalaqt-ul-aflāk …wa lawlā Fatima lamā khalaqtukumā" (If you did not exist, I would not create the heavens, …and if the Fatima did not exist, I would not create you two), two questions arise: what does it mean to say, 'the Prophet is the goal of creation'? and is Fatima's position higher than the Prophet's?
The abovementioned hadith has appeared in Behār al-Anwār.38 In this regard, one of the three following meanings is worth noting:
1. The goal of the universe would not be realized without the Prophet. In the Quran's view, the whole universe has been created for the man:
«خَلَقَ لَكُمْ ما فِي الْأَرْضِ جَمِيعاً»
"He it is Who created for you all that is in the earth…"39.
And the man has been created to worship God, which is the only way to achieve the everlasting perfection and felicity:
«وَ ما خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَ الاْءِنْسَ إِلاّ لِيَعْبُدُونِ»
"And I have not created the jinn and the men except that they should serve Me."40
The reality of worshipping God and covering the path of perfection would not be realized among human beings except through the prophets' guidance. Since the holy Prophet is the messenger of the perfect divine religion, then without his majesty the goal of creation would not be realized completely.
2. The Prophet (PBUH) can manifest the whole goal of creation of universe in himself, so the goal of creation cannot be realized without him. All other men, however, have partially realized that goal to the extent of their own level of perfection. In other words, the goal of human's creation is achieving the highest possible level of perfection. This goal, in its highest level, is realized in certain divine saints and in perfect men. And the Prophet is the perfect man, even the most perfect divine saint.
3. As said before, the Prophet is the man who has realized the goal of creation completely. But for the Prophet to be able to realize such a goal in him, the whole universe and all human beings – whether believer or unbeliever – had to be created so that the Prophet would have the opportunity to achieve perfection and actualize his potentials in various conditions. Other human beings are also part of the goal of creation to the extent of their level of perfection; that is, the more they are perfect, the nearer they are to the main goal of creation and vice-versa.
The three abovementioned meanings may be considered all together as a whole. God wants all human beings to achieve final perfection; this is dependent on obeying the divine religion, and the perfect religion has been brought by the Prophet. On the other hand, he realizes the goal of creation in himself to the extent that he achieves perfection; he distances himself from the goal of creation in his intentional failures. These deficiencies are not, then, the main goal. The main goal is the perfection of the creatures, for which the Prophet is the perfect manifestation and the pioneer.

The Status of her Majesty Fatima (PBUH)
The abovementioned hadith continues as follows: '…and if Ali did not exist, I would not create you; and if Fatima did not exist, I would not create you two'41; and also: '…and if you did not exist, I would not create the world and the hereafter, the Paradise and the Hell'42, or: '…and if you two did not exist, I would not create the heavens'.43
Now, disregarding the question of whether the phrase '…and if Fatima did not exist,' has been transmitted with a correct authority, we may offer some justifications for it. One of them is that the Imams are protectors of Islam, and if there were no Imam after the Prophet's death, Islam would be deviated. In other words, God protects His last religion through the Imams, and the Imams – except Imam Ali – are all among the descendants of her majesty Fatima. This is such an important point that Imam Mahdi says, 'The Prophet's daughter is a good exemplar for me…'44So, we may say, 'if Fatima did not exist, there were no Imams as the protectors of Islam, and Islam would not remain; furthermore, if Fatima did not exist, Imam Mahdi would not be born, while it is he who realizes the final goal of the creation of universe and the man.'
 

Perfection and Creation
Question no. 8: God has been said to have created us so that we may achieve perfection; now perfection for what? What then? We are said to go to the Paradise; What then? Is being in Paradise forever not boring?

Why perfection?
It must be noted that felicity and perfection are inherently ideal for the man and are consistent with his existential structure and his internal need, just as growth and fruition of a tree is consistent with its natural structure and this growth and perfection is pleasant for all.
The man's perfection and elevation is pleasant for all; his willingness for achieving perfection has no limitation, and the men naturally aim at beauties and virtues. Thus, the Paradise as the manifestation of all beauties and virtues is requested by all pure and wise men.
No Repulsion in the Paradise
What causes displeasure is the reduction of energy, fatigue, and discontinuation of pleasure. And what causes repulsion is 'lack of variety'. But the Quran says on the blessings of the Paradise:
«لَهُمْ فِيها ما يَشاءونَ...»
'…they will have therein all that they wish…'45
And also it says:
«...هُمْ فِيها خالِدُونَ »
'…and in them they will abide…'46
There is, therefore, no limitation there; what they imagine and wish will be prepared for them. They will not imagine anything else to be surfeited with pleasures in the Paradise. Besides, there will be no fear of termination of blessings, so there will be no distress and worry there.
Martyr Murtezā Mutahharī writes in this regard, '…the man is always seeking wealth; when he seeks something and finds it, his eagerness would diminish, and even is replaced by repulsion and hate. This is because what he has found is not the very thing he would wish with all his heart. He just would imagine it as what he wished. In fact, he had been seeking something else, i.e. absolute perfection. The man is seeking perfection, the unlimited one. This is because he hates defect and non-existence. For any limited perfection towards which he moves, his first motivation is the desire to have the absolute perfection. He then thinks it is his lost ideal. He would seek a car, a house or a certain fashion, considering it as his real lost ideal. When he acquires it and sees that it is much less than what he wished, he would leave it, going to seek another thing. The process would be repeated for that new thing as well. Now if the man acquires the absolute perfection, which is deposited in his own nature, he would be at rest there. He would be neither surfeited with it nor seeking a change; just like a boisterous river that reaches the ocean and suddenly comes to a rest.
As for the Paradise, the Quran says:
«خالِدِينَ فِيها لايَبْغُونَ عَنْها حِوَلاً»
'Abiding therein; they shall not desire removal from thence.'47
Besides, there would be unimaginable spiritual pleasure in the Paradise with the presence of the prophets, the Imams, the divine saints and meeting God. Hāfez says:
There is no look not illuminated by your face's light
There is no eye not indebted by the soil of your court
Clear-sighted people look at your face, yet
There is no head free of your hair's secret
Sa’dī says:
I'm cheerful in the world because the world is cheered up with Him
I'm in love with the whole universe as the universe all belongs to Him
It is not certain for the heavens not for the angels
What there is from Him in the man's heart
What is clear about the man is that he has no real link with anyone except his God. All other links he may have are temporal and unreal, and will be cut out some day.48
 

Question no. 9: If the goal of man's creation is for him to achieve perfection, why has God not given him all perfection outright and without trouble?
The fact is that before the man's creation there have been animate and inanimate creatures (such as stones, plants, animals), each created – statically or dynamically –with some certain features. On the other hand, there have existed non-material beings such as angels, each with a certain duty, who have had some role in the course of the worldly life. Besides these two groups of creatures, God created the man with broader range of latitude, so that he may have the capacity of being present in various domains using the facilities of the world. He has the possibility to fall down to the lowest ranks or rise up to the highest levels of perfection, such that he can be lower than the animals or deserve to be a teacher for the angels.
As the Quran says in introducing the wretch:
«أُولئِكَ كَالْأَنْعامِ بَلْ هُمْ أَضَلُّ أُولئِكَ هُمُ الْغافِلُونَ»
"…they are as cattle, nay, they are in worse errors; these are the heedless ones."49
On the other hand, the Almighty God raised Adam, as the symbol of humanity, to the position of teaching the angels:
«قالَ يا آدَمُ أَنْبِئْهُمْ بِأَسْمائِهِمْ»
"He said: O Adam! Inform them of their names."50
The characteristic of the man as someone who can achieve the highest ranks of perfection with awareness and free will has caused him to deserve the position of divine vicegerency. Before Adam, however, there were other creatures such as angels who had been granted the certain ranks of perfection outright and without trouble. Yet, God created the man with the ability of organizing his own evolution and perfection with effort, planning, and resolution.
There appeared in hadith that the Glorified Creator
Created the creatures in three types
One group all with reason, knowledge and munificence
They are angles who know nothing except prostration
There is no passion or greed in them
They are absolute light, alive with God's love
Another group void of knowledge
Like animals fat with eating grass
They see nothing but stable and grass
Free from misery or nobility
The third one is that of the human
Half angle and half animal
The animal half disposed to low ranks
The other half disposed to the heavens
Which one in this double nature
Would overcome and win the contest?51
Based on what we said up to now, it is clarified that voluntary perfections among the creatures is in a position higher than non-acquired perfections. Accordingly, if the righteous person rises above all angels and God has put the whole universe at his disposal, it is for his acquiring higher perfection (acquired and voluntary), and granting all perfections would mean the negation of voluntary perfections. This would necessitate an alteration in the man's nature and changing him into an angel-like creature as well as causing a fundamental transformation in the universe system in a way that the world would have no vicissitudes and without different species of human. It would also necessitate a change in the system of the hereafter and there would be no meaning in various stations of the Judgment Day. In this case, there would be no need to create a creature called man, because the angels already existed; the man's privilege is that he would cover his path among all the vicissitudes of the world and his power to choose between good and evil, acquiring the right to reward or punishment.

Compulsory Life

Question no. 10: Can I say, 'I'm not content with my life and live out of compulsion; Are my sins not due to my creator? If God did not create me, I would not commit so many sins and would not be obliged to suffer from so many punishments.'
If the man is truly aware of his position and status, he would not complain or feel discontent. Some points are noteworthy in this regard:
1. The man is the crème de la crème of existence, its principal essence and the most noble creature; indeed, the whole universe has been created for him.52
There is the crown of 'karramnā' on your head
And the collar of 'a'taynāk' on your neck
The man is the essence and the heavens are his accidents
All are subsidiaries and he is the goal
The reason and intelligence are your slaves
As you are such, do not sell yourself cheaply53
2. We must not ignore the truth that the trait of the inner light emanates from the human nature; if this divine source of light is not extinguished, not covered with the dust of impurities and passions, it will be always brilliant. If, however, it is hidden under the darkness of 'sin', the sinful man would not see his truth; and since he lacks any light, he would lose and forget himself after a while. It is just through knowledge and affection that human nature will remain brilliant, since knowledge shows the man the source agent (i.e. God), and affection returns him to his original source, the Almighty God: 'The knowledge guides [us] towards Him, and the exultation directs [us] to Him'.54
Human beings must try to know themselves so that they may not sell themselves inexpensively, not being discontented with their being; rather, they must enjoy material and spiritual pleasures, bringing about the eternal felicity and comfort for themselves in the hereafter.
The miserable man did not know himself
He came with abundance and fell into scarcity
He sold himself cheaply
Being a satin but sewing himself onto a canvas55
The Importance of Hope
God the Most High considers despair of His mercy a great sin, and tells the Holy Prophet:
«قُلْ يا عِبادِيَ الَّذِينَ أَسْرَفُوا عَلى أَنْفُسِهِمْ لا تَقْنَطُوا مِنْ رَحْمَةِ اللّهِ إِنَّ اللّهَ يَغْفِرُ الذُّنُوبَ جَمِيعاً إِنَّهُ هُوَ الْغَفُورُ الرَّحِيمُ»
“Say, ‘O my servants who have acted extravagantly against their own souls! do not despair of the mercy of Allah; surely Allah forgives the faults altogether; surely He is the Forgiving the Merciful’”56
While the man does wrong
God’s grace will make him pure
His mercy has gone further
And given the impure man a light more than the moon’s
The rain comes from the sky
To purify the impure ones57
So, there is no place for discontent or despair. Why then committing sin or complaining?!
It is true if God did not create man, he wouldn’t commit sins; however, this does not mean God is responsible for his sins.
The man’s creation is like acquiring knowledge. Knowledge is one of the most vital needs and the cause for the man’s growth and prosperity. However, the same thing has been much abused, causing a lot of irreparable damages to humanity. If there was no science, there would be no fatal chemical, atomic or biologic weapons. This, however, does not mean that science is vicious and responsible for internecine world wars. What is bad is the lack of faith and a right orientation along with science, and the one blamable is the passionate man who uses the science as a means of acquiring power and uses the power as a means of fulfilling his own desires. Our soul is good, and if we do not use it properly or do not use the various talents and faculties granted by God properly for achieving the eternal felicity, our soul would be evil; even worse is the way we may regard God as responsible for our own faults.
 

The Philosophy of Instincts
Question no. 11: If the main goal of creating man is guiding him to proximity to God, why has he been given the instincts directing him to material pleasures and deceitful worldly sights, to which most men are susceptible? Is this not contradicting the goal and contrary to wisdom?
Indeed, human beings have two kinds of tendencies:
1. An upward tendency towards growth and perfection;
2. A downward tendency towards resting and comfort.
Naturally, a usual man is more willing to have rest and comfort. For instance, if he did not have the feeling of hunger and thirst – while his body needs food and water – he would not move for eating and drinking in time. The reason is his propensity to comfort. To ignite the man and create motivation in him, the All-Wise God has granted him the feeling of thirst and hunger to make him move for food and water. There are other things difficult to tolerate as well. Nevertheless, God has put some pleasure in them so that men may tolerate the troubles to achieve the pleasure. Among the best examples is the toleration of difficulties in managing the family life and nurturing the children. If there were no sexual desire, many men would not marry, not accepting the responsibility of family. However, the sexual desire ignites them to do so, and this is a sign of God’s wisdom and the really systematic management of the universe. We must know that ‘living’ in a systematic complex is dependent on the goals and the devices necessary to achieve those goals. Thus, the conditions, facilities and the method of living in the fetal period are different from those in the world, just as the worldly life is different from the life in hereafter. Now it is quite understandable that living in the world and fulfilling the man’s various physical and spiritual needs, as well as the way of treating one’s friends and enemies call for special faculties and devices. Among them are the faculties of passion, anger, imagination and reason, each of which plays a special role in the person’s life and his relationships with others. All of these faculties and instincts are defined in the universe system and represent the stable and strong structure of the existence.
Of course, the faculties of passion and anger may be well abused, leading to disturbances and riots. However, we may well say that it is necessary to pay a cost for formation of virtue and beauty, just as we need to melt several tons of ores to extract a few grams of gold; and to acquire a vein of diamond, it is necessary for the fossils to be under the pressures. The human society is no exception in the universe system. Thus, for the virtuous people to be actualized and the saints to appear in the society, all human beings must experience all such vicissitudes of the world, just as we must establish many schools and pay a lot of costs to train a few learned and educated men. Nevertheless, all things in the path of formation of gold and diamond, and those in the course of identifying the prominent scientists, each partly enjoy the pleasures and beauties or partly acquire some level of science. Thus, not all others have been sacrificed for a small number of the prominent ones; rather, each plays a role in his own place and to the extent of his own efforts. He then would enjoy material rewards and spiritual pleasures in this world and the hereafter. This is the very manifestation of God’s 'Wisdom', on which the major structure of the universe has been founded. God, however, would question everyone to the extent of his own talents and facilities.
Up to here, we have presented a brief answer by having a general look at the worldly life from the beginning to the end, and herein the very existence of instincts inside the human beings – with both beautiful and ugly aspects – has been logically justified. Although many men have been involved in the ugly side of the instincts, this is the cost to be paid for the formation of system of worldly life and its being goal-oriented. Viewed from an individual and social perspective, the sexual instinct depends on some factors to flare or be controlled, the most important of which are human’s will, his personal planning such as sleep, food, imagination, … as well as major cultural and social planning in such a way that the grounds are prepared for the norms and the abnormalities are prevented.
To have a more detailed explanation of this, the following points are presented:
1. It is not quite right to say that God has created the man susceptible to harms posed by sexual desire and other instincts. He has created the man with two sets of desires (material and spiritual), and this is the man himself who can rely on the powerful will bestowed on him by God to make one of them overcome the other. The man’s susceptibility to harms is, then, dependent on his own will. What should be directly attributed to God is this very strong instinct, but the susceptibility to harm is due to the man himself.
The meaning of power and will is the possibility of acting in two different ways, otherwise it would be nonsense. Therefore, attributing good deeds to someone and proving his capability and desert for something would be meaningful just when he is able to act in either way.
2. The virtuous and evil persons will not be formed unless there are instincts such as passion and anger with their double face (good and bad); the face of the beauty is revealed more when it is placed along the ugliness, and the virtues of divine men are manifested more when they are compared to those evil men stained with passions. Thus, through a general look at the lives of human beings, we will see the effective role of passion and anger in manifestation and even actualization of virtuous people.
3. Although there are a lot of grounds for corruption and the concern herein offends many youths, we must know that the flare of passion and anger is not only controllable by the youths’ will and resolution, but also one may – by resisting the pressure of passion – experience a pleasing feeling that will last forever in life, so that in future situations it would be much easier to pass the crisis – a situation you may have experienced too. Islam, unlike Christianity, does not view human instincts – the sexual desire in particular – negatively. Based on the wisely-designed system of creation, Islam regards all these useful. What is refuted in Islam is assuming the passions as the final goal, man’s slavery to them, and ignoring the transcendental dimension of his existence. Instead, Islam insists on the proper and normal use of the instincts, directing them to the path of growth and elevation.
4. Human instincts and passions, including the sexual desire, are controllable; and by controlling we mean proper use, not suppression.
5. Human free will is among the greatest divine blessings, and plays a powerful role in conducting his actions. Man’s will may be well reinforced and strengthened, which then would result in facilitating difficult tasks. While having powerful instincts, a young enjoys very powerful will and resolution, with very high-level purity of soul and spiritual leanings. In the holy Quran, God adduces youths such as Joseph and Companions of the Cave who, with their powerful wills resisted the horrible storm of the instincts, and recorded the highest honors in human history. In the history of Islamic revolution of Iran, the wills of faithful youths were the most beautiful manifestations of the youths’ will and faith.
6. Divine assistance: God is always assisting those who seriously seek a pure life and avoid committing sins.
«وَ الَّذِينَ جاهَدُوا فِينا لَنَهْدِيَنَّهُمْ سُبُلَنا وَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَمَعَ الْمُحْسِنِينَ»
“And (as for) those who strive hard for Us, We will most certainly guide them in Our ways; and Allah is most surely with the doers of good.”58
The Holy Quran proclaims God’s assistance and grace to be one of the factors leading to Joseph’s deliverance from the prison. Such graces, however, are not restricted to the prophets like Joseph; rather, everyone would be granted God’s grace to the extent he avoids committing sins, seeking help from God in this regard. God’s special grace to Joseph was due to his sincerely devotion.59
7. Possibility of repentance: it is true that many human beings tend to commit sins, surrendering to their own passions. Nevertheless, God has opened the door of repentance to his servants so that human beings may restart a purified life, washing out the previous filths of sin in the purifying waters of divine remission, and stepping towards the eternal felicity and salvage.
Altogether, on the one hand, human instincts are necessary elements in him, and on the other hand, the ways out of filths are open to man; in principle, we may say that existential capacity is not formed and completed unless we enjoy passions and anger along with reason and heart so that we may become worthy of entering the Paradise or otherwise fall down into the Hell. Thus, our Paradise and Hell must be built and formed through living in this world. Accordingly, the world is said to be the place for origination and confirmation of capabilities, and the hereafter is the place for manifestation and stability of the capabilities. In other words, the world is the ground for ‘what are becoming’ and the hereafter is establishment in ‘what have become’. Thus, our ‘positions in the Paradise’ or ‘places in the Hell’ have not been prepared beforehand; rather, we must build them, and this depends on existence of passion and anger along with reason and heart.

Creation of the Hell
Question no. 12: What is the mystery of creation of the Hell? How would a God, more compassionate than a mother, burn his servants in the Hellfire?
In God’s wisely-designed system of creation, just as it is necessary and beneficial to have the Paradise in the whole system, it is necessary and beneficial to have the Hell as well. Where God enumerates His blessings for human beings, He mentions the Hell and the punishments there among the blessings:
«... هذِهِ جَهَنَّمُ الَّتِي يُكَذِّبُ بِهَا الْمُجْرِمُونَ يَطُوفُونَ بَيْنَها وَ بَيْنَ حَمِيمٍ آنٍ فَبِأَيِّ آلاءِ رَبِّكُما تُكَذِّبانِ»
“This is the Hell which the Sinners deny: In its midst and in the midst of boiling hot water will they wander round. Then which of the favors of your Lord will ye deny?”60
One of the benefits of the Hell is that it prevents many people from evildoing, distortion and going astray. There are many who have come to the eternal felicity out of the fear of the Hell. If the All-Wise God has enumerated the Hell among His blessings, He has really mentioned a great blessing, since without it most of the people would not worship God or move towards perfection.
The Mystery of the Hell
Theologians, philosophers and divine mystics have variously revealed the mystery of the Hell and argued for it. Some have provided up to eleven reasons; here, we will confine ourselves to just one of them in each case.61
TThe Hell is nothing but the objective embodiment of the man’s deeds. The punishment in the hereafter is not, unlike the worldly punishments, conventional. It is, rather, a genetic and unavoidable reality fallen upon the man by himself. The conventional punishments are able to be established or abolished, but the genetic punishment is the inward side of the action itself, the action and the punishment being two sides of the same coin. In such a relationship, the evil deed is equivalent to the related punishment and there is no gap between them. The Holy Quran says:
«وَ مَن جاءَ بِالسَّيئه فَكُبَت وُجوُههم فِى النّار هَل تُجزون إِلاّ ما كُنتم تَعمَلون»
“And whoever brings evil, these shall be thrown down on their faces into the fire; shall you be rewarded (for) aught except what you did?”62
In another verse, the Holy Quran says:
«يا أَيُّها الَّذِين كَفَروُا لا تَعْتَذِروُا اليَوم إِنَّما تُجْزُون ما كُنتم تَعمَلون»
“O, you who disbelieve! Do not urge excuses today; you shall be rewarded only according to what you did.”63
God has provided no device to burn them except their own deeds; indeed, the unjust doers are themselves the firewood for the Hellfire:
«وَ أَما القاسِطُون فَكانُوا لِجَهنَّم حَطَبا»
“And as for those who are unjust, they are firewood for hell.”64
God then must be feared for such a fire:
«فَاتَّقوا النّار الَّتى وَقوُدها النّاس و الحِجارَة»
“… then be on your guard against the fire of which men and stones are the fuel…”65
The Quran says truly, using no imagery or metaphor:
«إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ أَمْوالَ الْيَتامى ظُلْماً إِنَّما يَأْكُلُونَ فِي بُطُونِهِمْ ناراً»
“… those who swallow the property of the orphans unjustly, surely they only swallow fire into their bellies …”66
Indeed, God has created man as a free agent who can create an eternal paradise through his good deeds, living there forever, or can create a flaring hell, burning in the hell of his deeds forever. And even worse, through his wrong deeds, the man turns into an infernal being, burning in his own hell. Therefore, it is impossible to separate the punishment and the man who has lost his human reality, having turned into an infernal devil.
It must be noted, however, that the Hell is ready just for those who have closed to themselves all the doors of felicity such as repentance, intercession, and the broad divine forgiveness, and no factor can separate them from their bad deeds. The man in this stage has enkindled his own fire, and even worse, he has turned into his own fire; thus, it is impossible to separate him from his own essence.67
As for God’s kindness and comparing it to that of a mother, it is worth noting that a mother’s kindness is in itself a manifestation of God’s kindness bestowed upon mothers. No doubt, God’s kindness towards His servants is much more than a mother’s kindness towards her child, and He would grant wrongdoers a much longer respite.
However, the important point is that God’s mercy and kindness is accompanied by His justice and wisdom. Thus, if one does so many wrong deeds that deserve punishment, it would be necessary to do so. In case the wrong deed is very serious (such as addiction or murdering an innocent person), even the parents themselves would surrender the wrongdoer to judicial authorities to be punished.

Creation of Dwellers in the Hell
Question no. 13: What is the purpose of creating the man and the universe, while most of the people are dwellers of the Hell?
That the most people will be dwellers of the Hell forever is not proved; besides, there are clear evidences on the opposite side. “Eternal dwellers in the Hell” are those who have chosen to disobey God knowingly and intentionally, having defied the clear divine reasons, and insisting on their deviation despite so many lights in the path. Such individuals, while in abundance, are just a minority in the whole population of human society. The rest of the sinners and deviated people would get to salvation through repentance, intercession, or divine forgiveness; otherwise, they would tolerate punishments for a while to be purified, then to dwell in the Paradise forever. Their punishment, however hard it may be, would not be comparable to the eternal residence in the Paradise.
Besides, restricting creation to good people would necessitate negation of human free will; in other words, it would necessitate the negation of creating man as a free agent different from other creatures.
Normally, even the sinners do some good deeds as well, and there are few men full of challenge and opposition to God. Those very good deeds of the sinners, however scanty, are their voluntary perfection and worthy of creation. With their voluntary perfection, they can receive God’s mercy too. Even if a man is full of infidelity, God’s wisdom still calls for creating him, because even that man can achieve perfection through his own free will.

 


The Quality of Creation
 

Before Creation
Question no. 14: Before creating the universe, what was God doing?
To answer this question, some points are noteworthy:
Firstly, it is necessary to clarify the meaning of ‘before’. Apparently, it refers to ‘temporal priority’; however, there are various conceptions of priority and posteriority in philosophy. In this case, the above question would mean ‘what was God doing when He had not created the universe?’
However, this question suffers from an inconsistency in itself; this is because ‘time’ is a quantity accidental to matter through motion. Thus, it is just peculiar to the moving physical beings.
With this analysis, it is clarified that ‘time’ is somehow dependent on matter and motion; and if there was no matter or motion, ‘time’ would be meaningless.68This idea means that there is no ‘time’ in the realm of incorporeal beings, and ‘time’ is peculiar to the material world. Thus, the material world has been created first, and then the matter’s motion has resulted in the origination of a notion called ‘time’. Now, it is clear that the question is in itself wrong, because there is no time and motion, or change and alteration in God’s sacred realm; accordingly, we may not imagine any temporal priority or posteriority there. These notions are meaningful just in the realm of material life governed by temporal priority and posteriority. So the phrase ‘before creation of the universe’ is not right as far as ‘time’ is concerned. However, we may properly say that God has created incorporeal beings – as far as rank is concerned - prior to creation of the matter and material world. This is because God is the absolute bountiful and all-emanating gracious; His emanation is perpetual and non-stop. So there has been no condition without His creation and emanation.
The Holy Quran says:
«يَسْئَلُهُ مَنْ فِي السَّماواتِ وَ الْأَرْضِ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ هُوَ فِي شَأْنٍ»
“All those who are in the heavens and the earth ask of Him; every moment He is in a state (of glory).”69
The above verse consists of two parts:
a) All creatures are dependent on Him; that is, all creatures need Him for their existence as well as their inherent and non-inherent affairs. In philosophical terms, all creatures are inherently 'originated', and they are in need of their cause, the self-contained essence of God, both for their origination and survival.
b) The second part of the verse means that ‘everyday He is in a new task’. The Arabic word for ‘day’ used here is 'yawm'. If by this word the notion of ‘time’ is meant, then the verse means that every time the Almighty God is involved in a new creation and a new design.70
The word ‘yawm’ seems to mean something more than just ‘time’, and it has been used due to lack of a proper term for a high notion. To explain, it should be noted that any event, if temporal, has two aspects: temporal and epochal. The incident of Āshūrā, for instance, has a temporal as well as an epochal or celestial aspect, which goes beyond the time and space.71
With such an interpretation, ‘yawm’ may mean an epoch, because a material phenomenon, while taking place in time and space, has a celestial aspect beyond time, not being bound in time and space. In a higher rank, the Absolute Abstract Being is void of any possibility or defect and has no temporal aspect. He is with all times, but not bound in time; He is with all spaces, but not bound in space.72 Thus, the verse would mean that the Almighty God is involved in a new creation in every epoch, creating a new thing not present before, and His works are not repeated; rather, they are genuine and with no prior model.73
 

Creation of Universe
Question no. 15: How has the universe been created? Has it been created out of ‘nothing’, while ‘nothing’ has no generation?
The universe has not been created out of nothing. However, it is original and independent of any preceding matter. In other words, creation of universe is just dependent on the Almighty God’s will, needing no preceding matter. This is unlike creation of the man, which is just changing the forms and synthesis of preceding matters to generate a new product. Therefore, even if we may consider some preceding matters in the cosmic structure, out of which the existing form of the universe has been generated, those very matters have also been created by the Creator.
As for the creation of the universe Imam Sādeq (PBUH) says, ‘God has not created the universe out of ‘anything’, not creating it out of ‘nothing’ either’.
A precise look at the above saying shows, on the one hand, Imam’s philosophical and scientific skill, and on the other hand, God’s infinite power and His self-sufficiency in creating the universe.
In Sheikh Tūsī’s book entitled al-Ihtijāj, it is written, “Imam Sādeq was asked ‘what has the universe been created from?’, and he replied, ‘it has not been created from anything’; he then was asked, ‘how does God make living things from nothing?’, and he replied, ‘the creatures are either created from something or created from non-thing [material].”74
The story of divine creation, put in a simple example, is as follows: just as an engineer first visualizes the design of a building in his mind, and then portrays it, the Almighty God knew all minute features of the universe before creation; as soon as He decided to create the universe, He caused it to come into being. Before God’s will to create things, they are present in His knowledge, and after that, they come into objective and external existence.75
Thus, there is a difference between saying that ‘the universe has not been created from anything’ and ‘the universe has been created from nothing’. The former is right, and the latter is wrong.
 

Creation and the Natural Laws
Question no. 16: Have the natural laws been used in creation of the universe and the creatures, or the contrary has taken place in the case of miracles?
1. Natural laws are part of the divine laws governing the universe system. These laws are not governing the divine actions. In other words, natural laws are based on divine creation and describing it; the divine creation does not follow these laws. Indeed, in the Quranic verses and in traditions the ‘creation’ has been called ‘fitr’ and the ‘creator’ has been called ‘fātir’; this is because ‘fitr’ means the original and innovative creation; that is a creation without precedence and non-imitative. This is the man whose works are all based on imitation of the nature, and in the framework of the laws governing it. Our works are all imitations of the models already present. Even the men’s inventions or innovations have their roots in the nature. God’s action and creation, however, are not so. This is because there was nothing prior to His creation to be imitated by Him.
2. As stated before, natural laws are part of divine laws in the creation system; and there are some metaphysical laws and more general systems whose discovery are not within the capability of empirical sciences; rather, they may be recognized through reason and revelation.
In cases such as miracles, we see some events occurred out of the normal process of the nature. Certainly, there are different views regarding the fact that the miracle is contrary to natural laws or is taken place in their context. It is true, however, that the extraordinary things are also systematic affairs within the realm of divine laws and the general laws governing the system of existence. Therefore, there is nothing contrary to divine laws governing the existence. Rather, the events occur according to laws having longitudinal and traverse hierarchal relations. Some of these laws are known to the man and others are not.

Periods of Creation
Question no. 17: In some verses, the Quran says, ‘We have created the earth in two days’; in some others, it says, ‘We created the earth in six days’. How can this be justified?
The Quran proclaims the number of days of creation to be six; four days are related to the creation of the earth and dealing with its affairs. Four days are related to the skies. The affairs of the earth and the skies have two days in common.76 The days are six in total.
Here, six days refer to six periods, not six worldly days round the clock, or days as opposed to nights. The creation of the universe in six days has been mentioned in seven Quranic verses.77 In three verses, the phrase “what is there between the earth and the sky” has been added. Of course, the creation of the whole universe in six normal days is apparently contrary to the science. This is because the science says, ‘the formation of the universe to its present condition has lasted billions of years’. However, as stated before, the word 'yawm' is also used to mean a period, whether it is one year or one hundred years, one million years or billions of years. There are evidences proving this meaning:
1. The word 'yawm' has been frequently used in the Quran to mean a long period of time, such as ‘yawm al-qiyāma’,78 which will last at least 50,000 years.
2. The word 'yawm' is sometimes used to mean a period of time, no matter how long it is.79
3. In traditions, the word 'yawm' has been used to mean ‘period’ or ‘age’:
«الدَّهْرَ يَوْمَانِ يَوْمٌ لَكَ وَ يَوْمٌ عَلَيْكَ»
“The world is in two days for you: one day is in your favor, the other is against you.”
Besides, the phrase ‘sitta-ti ayyām’ has been interpreted as ‘six periods’.80
4. In daily conversations,'yawm' and its equivalents are also used to mean ‘period’. For instance, we say, ‘one day the earth was molten and flaring, and the other day it got cold’; we say this in spite of the fact that the melting period of the earth lasted for billions of years.
Kalīm Kashānī said:
Good name of the life was not more than two days
Oh, Kalīm, I’ll tell you how it passed then;
One day was devoted to falling in love with this and that
The other was spent for cutting with this and that
1 Muhammad Taqi Ja’farī, Sharh wa Naqd wa Tafsīr-e Mathnawī, i, p. 184.
2 For further information, see Hamid Reza shakerin and Muhammad Reza Kāshefī, Dīn Shināsī wa Adyān wa Madhāhib, Qom, Ma’ārif Publications, 1386 SH.
3 Muhammad Taqi Dja'fari, Sharh wa Naqd wa Tafsīr-e Mathnawī, i, p. 588.
4 Qulām Hussein Tawakkulī (tr.), Dīn wa Chashmandāz-hāy-e Now, p. 163, Qom, The Office for Islamic Propaganda Publications, 1376 SH.
5 The Quran, Āl-e ‘Imrān (3), 191-2
6 The Quran, Tāhā (20), 50. There are numerous verses emphasizing the purposefulness of the creation, including: Sād (38), 27; Anbiyā (21), 16; Dukhān (44), 38; Nahl (16), 3; Zumar (39), 5; An’ām (6), 73; Ibrahīm (14), 19; Taghābun (64), 3; ‘Ankabūt (29), 44; Rūm (30), 8.
7 Mu’minūn (23), 115.
8 The Quran, Qiyāmat (75), 36.
9 The Quran, Talāq (65), 12.
10 The Quran, Mulk (67), 12.
11 The Quran, Zāriyāt (51), 56.
12 The Quran, An’ām (6), 162
13 Nahj al-Balāgha, Sermon 194
14 For further information, see: Murtezā Mutahharī, Yāddashthā, vi, s.v. WORSHIP, iv, s.v. PRAYER, Tehran, Sadrā Publications.
15 For further information, see:
a) Hamid Reza Shakerin, Dīn Shināsī wa Firaq wa Madhāhib, Qom, Ma’āref Publications, 1386 SH.
b) Idem, Chilchirāgh-e Hekmat (The Philosophy of Religious Precepts, Legal Reasoning and Emulation), Tehran, The Center for the Young Thought.
16 The Quran, Hūd (11), 118-19
17 Abul-Qāsem Pūr-Husseinī (tr.), Falsafa-ye Akhlāq, 1355 AH., quoting Abdullah Nasrī, Falsafa-ye Āfarīnesh-e Insān, p.354, Qom, Ma’āref Publications, 1st ed. 1382.
18 See Kazim 'Imādī (tr.), Falāsifa-yi Bozorg, s.v. Epicurus, p. 56.
19 Quoted from ibid, p.356; Mājarāhā-ye Jāwedān dar Falsafa, p.138.
20 For further information, see ‘Abdullāh Nasrī, Falsafa-yi Āfarīnish, p. 358.
21 See: John C. Luick, Humanism, Rutledge Encyclopedia Of Philosophy, Vol. 4, P.529, 1998.
22 Bābak Ahmadī, Mu’ammā-ye Modernīta, p. 111; Tony Davies, Humanism, p. 27.
23 Tony Davies, ibid., p. 9, 54, 64, 84 (quoted from Mahmūd Rajabī, Insān Shināsī, p.47, 3rd ed.)
24 Ibid.
25 Bābak Ahmadī, ibid, p.112.
26 For further information, see Abdullāh Nasrī, Takāpūgar-e Andīshehā (Muhammad Taqī Ja’farī's life, works and thoughts), p.220.
27 The Quran, Luqmān (31), 22
28 The Quran, Āl-e Imrān (3), 109
29 The Quran, Talāq (65), 10-11
30 The Quran, Ahzāb (33), 45-6
31 Mathnawī Ma’nawī, 4th vol., couplets 839-43.
32 The Quran, Tīn (95), 4-6
33 The Quran, ‘Asr (103), 2, 3
34 For further information on the previous discussions, see the following books:
a) ‘Allāma Tabātabā’ī, Insaān az Āghāz tā Anjām, translated and expounded by Sādeq Lārījānī, Tehran, Al-Zahra Publications
b) Muhammad Shujā'ī, Maqālāt, Tehran, Surūsh, vol. 1
c) Muhammad Taqi Ja’farī, Falsafa wa Hadaf-e Zendegī,
d) Idem, Zendegī-e Īdeāl wa Īdeāl-e Zandegī
e) ‘Abdullāh Nasrī, Insān az Dīdgāh-e Islām
f) Zaynul-Ābedīn Qurbānī, Falsafa wa Hadaf-e Zendegī
g) Murteza Mutahharī, Hadaf-e Zendegī
35 For further information, see:
a) ‘Abdullāh Nasrī, Falsafa-ye Khelqat-e Insaān, Tehran, Cultural Institute of Contemporary Science and Thought, 1379 AH;
b) Idem, Falsafa-ye Āfarīnish, Qom, Office of Contemporary Publication, 1st ed., 1382;
c) Muhammad Taqi Ja’farī, Āfarīnish wa Insān, Qom Dar al-Tablīgh Islāmī, 2nd ed. nd.
36 For instance, see: the Quran, Baqara (2), 29 (He admires his creation); Mu’menūn (23), 14
37 For further information, see: Murtezā Mutahharī, Collection of Works, vol. 1, p. 121-134, Tehran, Sadrā Publications, 1368 SH.
38 Vol. 16, p.28, 406, and vol. 57, p.199
39 The Quran, Baqara (2), 29
40 The Quran, Zāriyāt (51), 56
41 Sheikh Ali Namāzī, Mustadrak Safīnat al-Najāt, vol. 1, p.168-69
42 Ibid, p.167
43 Behār al-Anwār, vol. 74, p. 116
44 Ibid, vol. 53, p. 179-80
45 The Quran, Nahl (16), 31; Furqān (25), 16; to the same effect: Zumar(39), 34; Showrā (42), 22; Qāf (50), 35; Nesā (4), 132
46 The Quran, Baqara(2), 25, 82; Āl-e Imrān (3), 107; A'rāf(7), 42; Yūnus(10), 26; Hūd(11), 23; Mu'menūn(23), 11, etc.
47 Kahf (18), 108
48 Murtezā Mutahharī, Ma'ād, p.170-72
49 The Quran, A'rāf (7), 179
50 The Quran, Baqara (2), 33
51 Jalāluddīn Rūmī (adopted from a hadith transmitted Imam Ali: Wasā'el al-Shī'a, vol. 11, p. 164 )
52 The Quran, Asrā (17), 70; Mizān al-Hekma, vol. 1, p. 360-61
53 Mathnawī Ma'nawī, 5th book, couplets 3574-76
54 Explaining Bābā Tāher's words, quoted from Āyatullāh Jawādī Āmulī, Thematic Interpretation of the Holy Quran, vol. 14, p. 134, Qom, Asrā Publications, 1st ed. 1379
55Mathnawī Ma'nawī, 3rd book, couplets 1000, 1001
56 The Quran, Zumar (39), 53
57 Mathnawī Ma’nawī, 5th book, couplets 195-196, 199
58 The Quran, ‘Ankabūt (29), 69
59 See the Quran, Yūsuf (12), 7-42
60 The Quran, Al-Rahmān (55), 43-45
61 For further information, see Muhammad Qadrddān Malekī, Jahannam Cherā? Qom, Būstan-e Ketāb
62 The Quran, Naml (27), 90
63 The Quran, Tahrīm (66), 7
64 The Quran, Jinn (72), 15
65 The Quran, Baqara (2), 24
66 The Quran, Nesā (94), 10
67 For further information, see:
a) Hamid Reza Shakerin, Ma’ād Shināsī (Chelchrāgh Collection), Teharn, The Center for the Young Thought
b) Mhammad Hassan Qadrdān Qarā-Maleki, Ma’ād Shināsī
68 Bidāyat al-Hekma, p. 138-39
69 The Quran, Al-Rahmān (55), 29
70 Tafsīr-e Nemūna,vol. 23, p. 134, 135
71 Āyatullāh Jawādī Āmulī, 'Irfān wa Himāsa, p. 46-49
72 Al-Mīzān, vol. 19, p. 611
73 For a commentary of the verse, see: Tafsīr-e Nemūna, vol. 23, p. 137-38, 140-41; Al-Mīzān (Arabic text), vol. 19, p. 115, 117
a) Al-Mīzān (Persian trans.), xix, p. 170, 171, 173
74 Muhammad Sāleh Māzandarānī, Sharh-e Usūl-e Kāfī, vol. 3, p. 300-301
75 For further information, see Āyatullāh Jawādī Āmulī, Mabda’ wa Ma’ād, 8th article (the Best System of the Universe)
76 The Quran, Fusselat (41), 10, 12
77 The Quran, A’rāf (7), 54; Yūnus (10), 3; Hūd (11), 7; Furqān (25), 59; Sajda (32), 4; Qāf (50), 38; Hadīd (57), 4.
78 The Quran, Ma’ārij (70), 4
79 Nahj al-Balāgha, letter 72
80 Nāser Makārem Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-e Nemūna, Tehran, Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmiyya, vol. 6, p. 201


 

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